custom term papers

Archive

Archive for the ‘Samples’ Category

Sample Essay on Human Equality: Why Someone Should Work Harder

August 6th, 2017 Comments off

human-equalityEven in countries which do not legally discriminate against one particular group of people, it’s still possible to identify examples of inequality. In the United States, for instance, men are generally more likely to earn higher salaries than women, seemingly benefiting from their gender in the realm of career advancement. To understand why this occurs, it’s necessary to investigate the issue further.

According to a recent study, although American men and women express an equal desire to advance in the workplace, women are 15% less likely than men to get promoted. Although some people may assume that becoming a mother would reduce a woman’s desire to earn a promotion, the study found that women with children are actually more likely to work towards a promotion than women who aren’t mothers.

Other data can shed light on this discrepancy. Studies indicate that men generally feel confident in their ability to move up within a company or an organization. Women, when they have initially joined the workforce, still believe that earning a promotion to an executive role is a difficult process with many challenges along the way. This attitude, rooted in genuine concerns, may impact the degree to which a woman pursues career advancement. If a man feels confident about getting a promotion, he’ll make his desire known to upper management. A woman of equal qualifications, who believes that her gender will restrict her ability to advance, may be reluctant to pursue a new position aggressively.

A comprehensive study by Harvard Business School also helps to illustrate why women are passed over for promotions more frequently than men. Many people who thrive on their careers benefit from having a mentor who offers them advice. According to the study’s findings, however, there’s a clear difference between how mentors treat women and how they treat men.

Men typically receive a moderate amount of advice from their mentor. More importantly, with male employees, mentors are more likely to use their position to help an employee network with the right people. Women, on the other hand, receive too much advice from their mentors, possibly because they are viewed to be less qualified than their male counterparts. Unfortunately, mentors don’t usually exercise their influence to help women earn promotions. They supply an abundance of advice, but they don’t actually recommend them for any positions, depriving them of one of the key benefits a mentor can provide an employee.

In fact, many women involved in the study report that they have to challenge their mentor when trying to move up in an organization, whereas men generally don’t face this struggle. The mentor isn’t likely to accept that a woman is prepared for her new role.

Clearly, there is an equality gap, even if it isn’t legally-sanctioned. In the business world, women may have to work harder than their male counterparts to get noticed. In the meantime, it’s also important for companies and organizations to be aware of these disparities, so they can address them in the future.

References:

  • Bartz, C. (2014). Why Women Should Do Less & Network More. Fortune Online
  • Belanger, L. (2015). Making the Case for Women’s Career Development. Fast Company
  • Brescoll, V. (2013). Study: Men Seeking Career Advancement Are Favored for Flextime. Yale Insights
  • Hartmann, H. (2016). Women Need Equal Opportunities for Job Advancement. New York Times
  • Ibarra, H. (2010). Why Men Still Get More Promotions Than Women. Harvard Business Review Online
  • Lebowitz, S. (2015). A new study from Lean In and McKinsey finds exactly how much more likely men are to get promoted than women. Business Insider
  • Waller, M. (2016). How Men & Women See the Workplace Differently. Wall Street Journal
Categories: Samples Tags:

Sample Compare and Contrast Essay on Democracy and Dictatorship

August 4th, 2017 Comments off

democracy-and-dictatorshipThere are several systems of government that we can face in the nowadays world. In this article, we will get to know how to structure a compare and contrast essay, comparing dictatorship and democracy, as the most renowned systems of government.

Although there are clear differences between democracy and dictatorship on paper, recent global history has illustrated them in very clear terms. To grasp the essential differences between these two forms of government, it’s important to study the philosophical differences as well as the differences that become apparent when observing actual countries that implement these forms of government.

Essentially, a democracy is a form of government in which citizens elect representatives to govern. Technically, people don’t have the power to create, repeal, or enforce laws, but they do choose the individuals who will have that power on their behalf. Some countries are direct democracies, in which each vote is equal, and others implement voting models that weigh votes differently based on key factors like geography.

In a dictatorship, most or all of the political power is consolidated so that one individual governs the people. Dictatorships often arise after historically tumultuous periods, in which a charismatic ruler gains power via revolution or appeals to the masses.

It’s easy to identify the drawbacks of a dictatorship. When one individual has the power to govern, they can make and enforce laws that suit their own ideology, and not the ideology of the people they claim to represent. However, some people claim that allowing one person to rule ensures that government runs more smoothly and efficiently. They claim that it’s difficult to accomplish anything if the people have too much influence, simply because not all citizens of the nation agree on basic political issues. Others also point out that leaders can manipulate uneducated voters in a democracy, essentially installing a dictatorship that could not be questioned on legal grounds.

Although democracies are common throughout the world, the United States may be the most familiar example. In recent history, the fascist leadership of Adolf Hitler represents the worst consequences of a dictatorship.

It’s impossible to argue that the United States has been free of political tumult. When citizens of a geographically large country are allowed to participate in the political process, there will be significant differences of opinion that can result in a cumbersome government.

On the other hand, recent dictatorships indicate that the type of personality which is attracted to that much power is also unlikely to wield it scrupulously. Dictators often use their position to marginalize or exterminate certain ethnic groups, promote agendas which favor some citizens over others and engage in acts of aggression against other nations that don’t have the approval of the citizenry. As a result, even citizens who aren’t specifically targeted by a dictator can suffer if they’re drafted into a war they do not support. More importantly, because dictators do not earn their power through legitimate popular support, there is almost always a backlash against them. Many citizens feel that the government does not represent their interests.

At a basic, philosophical level, the differences between a democracy and dictatorship are obvious. It’s important to not merely study these differences from a theoretical perspective, though. In order to truly understand the impact they have on citizens of a country, one must study them in practice.

References:

  • Antic, M. (2004). DEMOCRACY VERSUS DICTATORSHIP: THE INFLUENCE OF POLITICAL REGIME ON GDP PER CAPITA GROWTH. EKONOMSKI PREGLED
  • BBC Staff. (2011). Democracy and Dictatorship: Key Differences. BBC
  • Cheibub, J. (2010). Democracy and dictatorship revisited. Public Choice, Vol. 143, 67-101.
  • Heichel, J. (2014). Democracy Vs. Dictatorship: Political Opposites. Udemy
  • Kunal, S. (2017). Democracy Versus Dictatorship? The Political Determinants of Growth Episodes. Harvard Kennedy School
  • Pande, A. (2010). Dictatorship vs. Democracy. The Huffington Post
  • Schiffbauer, M. (2010). Democracy vs. dictatorship: Comparing the evolution of economic growth under two political regimes. Economics of Transition, Vol. 18, 59-90.
Categories: Samples Tags:

Sample Essay on Ambiguity: Why Some Laws Contradict Each Other

August 2nd, 2017 Comments off

sample-essay-on-ambiguityWe can face a lot of laws that contradict each other. In this sample essay, we are going to have a look at the contradictory laws in the USA

In an ideal world, all laws would be consistent. However, this is not always the case. In some instances, laws contradict one another. Often, this happens in America when states legalize activities before the federal government does.

For example, consider marijuana laws. In some American states, it’s now legal to own and use marijuana recreationally. The federal government continues to outlaw recreational marijuana usage. Another example regards the difficulty of interpreting immigration laws, which are constantly shifting in the United States depending on political influence.

Maria Teresa Fuentes understands the consequences of this. Although she crossed the American border illegally, she filed paperwork to become a citizen, citing a law which states that illegal immigrants may be granted citizenship if they marry a legal citizen. Unfortunately, Fuentes had previously been deported from the country. Another law states that an individual who has been deported must wait for, at least, 10 years in their home country before they can begin the process of immigrating to the country legally.

There are obvious contradictions between the two laws when applied to this case. Fuentes made an attempt to earn her citizenship via legal means, adhering to the law as she understood it. Because she had been deported once before, her case was unique. In cases like this, interpretation is left to the discretion of a district attorney or judge. Sometimes these cases prompt amendments to laws, but usually, officials make a decision based on their own personal understanding of the statute.

Developments in technology can also result in contradictory laws, especially at the local municipal level. Examples of this are common in the telecommunications industry. In order to facilitate a strong cell service in a given area, providers must either erect new antenna towers or place their towers on existing tall structures. Frequently, they choose to place their antennas on apartment buildings. However, local codes may prohibit commercial, industrial, or similar facilities or developments in that particular zone. Back when the law was originally written, the local government could not have anticipated mobile phone technology.

In these cases, the proper interpretation of the code’s language is essential. Some residents of an apartment building might cite the law in order to prevent the company from installing antennas on their roof. The wireless provider must hire a skilled lawyer who can present an alternate interpretation of the language which would allow for such installations. They can generally make the argument that a wireless antenna installation does not match the definition of a commercial installation at the time the code was written.

For law students, it’s especially important to understand that there are laws on the books which seem to contradict one another. Depending on the nature of the contradiction, the laws may be amended, a judge or district attorney may be responsible for interpreting them, or a corporate lawyer may have to make their case to the local government. The law isn’t always as consistent as many would like, and it’s likely to only become more complex in the future, not less.

References:

  • Bort, R. (2017). JOHN OLIVER LAYS OUT ALARMING CONTRADICTIONS BETWEEN STATE, FEDERAL MARIJUANA LAWS. Newsweek
  • Bunn, T. (2013). Contradictory Laws. University of Richmond
  • Duant, L. (2014). State vs. Federal Law: Who Really Holds the Trump Card? The Huffington Post
  • Fernandez, V. (2011). Contradictory Immigration Laws Leave Families in Legal Limbo. New American Media
  • Grossman, A. (2014). Banks to be Allowed to do Business With Marijuana Dispensaries. Wall Street Journal
  • New York Times Staff. (2017). Understanding Transgender Access Laws. The New York Times
  • Sreenivasan, H. (2013). The Connection: Contradictory Marijuana Laws. PBS.org
Categories: Samples Tags:

Sample Essay ‘The Non-Voters: The Reasons, Impacts and Solutions’

July 24th, 2017 Comments off

The decision not to vote has as much of an impact as the choice to vote for a particular candidate. The research shows that low-income citizens and those aged 18-24 are the least likely to vote, meaning that significant segments of our population do not cast their voices for any candidates.  Some do not vote because they are too busy. Many choose not to vote because they don’t like the candidates or they feel their vote won’t make any difference. While an easier voting process might help marginally with voter turnout, the real solution seems to lie at the heart of our political system and its lack of representation of many of our citizens.

Why do so many citizens voluntarily surrender their constitutional right to vote? According to research in the last few years, the majority of non-voters are “pessimists.” They express the view that their vote won’t make any difference.  Many others say they are too busy, citing work, traveling and illnesses as major factors keeping them away from the polls. A common theme expressed among non-voters is the absence of good candidates. They just feel that there is no one worth taking the time to vote for.

We used to believe that the choice not to vote had little to no impact on elections. But now we know this is not true.  According to the analysis of the 2016 election results, only eight states and Washington DC that had actual political candidates earn more votes than the number of people who did not vote in that state. In other words, if “I Didn’t Vote” were a candidate, he or she would have won by a landslide. Statistically, non-voters are those under 30, low-income or non-white.  It has been found that low-income citizens often express the view that their vote won’t make a difference, while more affluent citizens feel more empowered and have more belief in the system. These gaps have tremendous implications for government policy concerning major issues like economic inequality, government services, and employment.

So how can we solve this problem and get more of our citizens out to vote? This is a complicated question and there appears to be no easy answer. The real solution will be complex and multifaceted.  Marginal improvement can be made by simplifying the voting process so that disenfranchised voters will not be able to find as many excuses to stay away. Even more important, the political system needs to generate candidates that are more representative of potential voters, especially of those in disenfranchised groups like low-income and youth. The best way to accomplish this is by more education on the policy positions of various candidates.

The American businessman William E. Simon once said, “”Bad politicians are sent to Washington by good people who don’t vote.”  For that reason, we must get to the heart of the deep sense of disenfranchisement affecting our non-voters and turn it around by building a political system that everyone can believe in.

REFERENCES:

Categories: Samples Tags:

10 GIF-Characteristics That Describe Law Students

July 23rd, 2017 Comments off

As a law student, you are working hard to acquire all the knowledge of the law, history, and procedure you need to excel at this demanding profession. But there are some skills that can’t be learned simply through studying. It takes some time to cultivate, practice and refine them. Here are the top 10 essential characteristics that you need to become a good lawyer.

 

 

 

 

1. Communication Skills

Your job is all about making effective arguments! To do that, you need excellent skills in speaking and writing. Don’t forget that you also need to be a good listener; attorneys have to carefully listen to all aspects of a case to make a convincing argument

 2. Analytical Thinking


Attorneys must have the ability to analyze large amounts of information and come to logical conclusions about it. Often, there will be more than one possible conclusion, so you will need to evaluate all the options carefully.

  3. Creativity

Often, lawyers need to come up with unique solutions to problems. They have to stay one step ahead of their opponents, and that requires some creative problem-solving skills as well as thinking “outside the box.”

 4. Research Skills

To win your case, you will need to do research quickly and effectively to find out the relevant information. Good research helps you understand the needs of your clients and to formulate a legal strategy that makes sense for their cases.

5. The Ability to Get Along with People

Ultimately, being a lawyer is all about acting on people’s behalf. The best attorneys develop the ability to read people (such as jurors and witnesses) and to develop relationships of trust with those they work with.

6. Commitment to Continuing Education

The legal field, like everything else, is constantly changing. The best lawyers commit to staying informed of changing trends in order to better help their clients.

7. Good Judgment

Not only will you need to make reasonable conclusions based on limited knowledge, but you will also need to analyze these judgments carefully for potential weaknesses and to understand the weaknesses in your opponent’s arguments.

8. Strategic Thought

Great lawyers always work out strategies in the best interests of their clients. At times, that may mean putting aside their original goals to fight for what is in the client’s best interest.

9. Perseverance

Do you think it takes a long time and a lot of perseverance to get your law degree? That’s good practice for the profession, in which you will often have to spend many hours working on a case to be successful.

10. Accountability

As a lawyer, you will need to be accountable not only for your own actions, but for your clients’, your firm, and other people you work with. Begin taking on accountability and responsibility now, so to be prepared for your future career.

 

As you work hard to attain your law degree, don’t forget about working to develop these essential qualities. You won’t learn them in your coursework, but you can nurture them through sustained practice and efforts.

Categories: Samples Tags:

Sample Essay on the Law Attitude to Abortion in Different States

July 23rd, 2017 Comments off

Ever since the historic Roe vs. Wade decision in 1973, the legalization of abortion has been a divisive and hotly debated issue in the USA, with public opinion split down the middle. But it might surprise you to learn what factors truly influence the opinion on this issue. While religion, race and educational level all play a small role, the sharpest difference exists based on a geographical region. This difference is most obvious when comparing the New England region (Connecticut, Massachusetts, Maine, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Vermont) with those of the Central South (Alabama, Arkansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Oklahoma, Tennessee and Texas).

Back in 1995, the Washington Post found an 18-point divide in public opinion between the New England and the South Central regions. Since that time, this divide has doubled, with a 35-point spread between these two regions, which still represent the highest and lowest populations of those in favor of legalized abortion. Support for legalized abortion in the South has dropped from 52 to 40 percent since 1995.

Even more telling, several of the Southern states have enacted anti-abortion laws in the last few years.  The TRAP (Targeted Regulation of Abortion Provider) laws have resulted in the closure of many abortion clinics in the South. In 2013, Texas passed such restrictive abortion legislation that all but six of its abortion providers were forced to close.

The statistics reveal that legislation such as this is a reflection of public opinion. A 2013 Pew Research poll found that in New England 75% of those surveyed believed that abortion should be legal in most cases, while only 40% of those surveyed in the South Central states believed this to be true. 52% of respondents in the South Central states believed abortion should be illegal in almost all cases, while only 20% of those from New England held this view.

The Pacific Coast and the Mid-Atlantic region also showed more liberal “pro-choice views”, while the MidWest and the South Atlantic regions veered more to the conservative camp. The Mountain West and the Great Lakes regions showed a far smaller divide, split almost 50/50.

Similar widening regional gaps in opinion can be found regarding other issues such as the legalization of same-sex marriage. The sharp differences, especially between the New England and South Central regions, can be at least partly explained by differences in religious beliefs, political affiliations, and social classes.

As such differences become more pronounced, it highlights the deep political division which has become the norm in American ideology. Is another American Civil War brewing? As these two regions become increasingly divided on a number of issues, it almost appears to be a possibility.

References:

Categories: Samples Tags:

13 Funny Papers You May Be Assigned to Research for a Law Class

July 23rd, 2017 Comments off

You knew that studying the legal field would be hard work! You expected to study all kinds of weighty topics related to things like the Constitution, health care, and intellectual property. But you never thought you would be assigned topics that were strange and even funny.

Here are some surprising and funny papers that you may be asked to research for the next law class.

1. Love Contract

This is the legal ramification when employees at the same workplace enter a relationship? This is a contract which protects the employer by limiting the liability.

2. The Pre-Relationship Agreement

Dating has become so complicated that some couples now draft legal agreements on touchy subjects like when to say “I love you” and after that period of time, they may refer to themselves as a couple.

3. The Spam Arrest Agreement

The aggressive anti-spam company had a clause which required violators to pay a $2000 fine for sending spam emails.

4. Rock Stars’ Contract Clause Agreement

Rock stars are known for having seemingly petty clauses in their contracts with venues in which they perform. Van Halen in the 1980s, whose contract requested M&Ms in their dressing room with all the brown ones removed.

5. The “Love of the Game” Clause

Most professional athletes have a clause limiting exactly where and when they will play to reduce the probability of injury. But Michael Jordan did the opposite, specifically stating in his contract that he would play anywhere or at any time he wanted to.

6. Laws about the Regulation of Drones

The increasing civilian use of drones raises problems for governments as they try to regulate their use.

7. Laws about Bitcoins

Is this “cryptocurrency” really a good idea? How can it be regulated? Is it helping or harming the global economy?

8. Do Climate Change Refugees Have the Right to Refugee Status?

Residents of the Pacific Island nation of Kiribati applied for refugee status based on the effects of climate change.

9. The Free Coffee Clause

Sometimes attorneys hide an offer for a free coffee or a six-pack of beer deep within a contract as a way to find out whether their clients have actually read it or not.

10. Artist Contracts in Deep Space

Back in the early 1970s, when we believed that space traveling was going to become part of our daily lives, recording artists put language in their contracts to protect their copyright, trying to define those rights within “the Solar System” because “the Universe” was deemed too vague.

11. The Private Possession of Big Cats

Have you ever dreamed of owning a pet lion? Various countries find their own ways of regulating the ownership of large cats like tigers, lions, and leopards.

12. Laws Against the Impersonation of Clergy

You already know that it’s illegal to impersonate police officers. But in 1995, a man was arrested for impersonating a priest. Impersonating clergy members is also expressly forbidden in Alabama state law.

13. Laws about Mispronunciation

Be careful the next time you mispronounce a name! When teachers mispronounce the names of their students, it is considered a “tiny act of bigotry.” And the mispronunciation of “Arkansas” is specifically outlawed in that state.

So if you think that writing papers for your law classes are going to be boring, think again! Some of the topics you may encounter are so weird that they’re funny, and will provide you with a unique view of human nature and the laws that we need to govern it.

Categories: Samples Tags:

Sample Essay on the Island of Manhattan Sold and Bought for $24

March 8th, 2017 Comments off

manhattan paperMany of us heard the story how the Dutch, governed by Peter Minuit, bought the entire island of Manhattan from the natives for a miserable price – 24$. But is really the story that correct?

The island of Manhattan has been inhabited by the Native American tribes for centuries, it is not quite possible to state for sure, which one made the deal with the Dutch, though probably it was the Canarsie tribe. Some people argue that Indians, due to their believes, didn‘t understand how trade with Europeans works, but we know for sure natives’ concepts of possession. The point is that natives had the concept of possession and private property (not dissimilar to capitalist construct), though many tribes had communal land.

Let’s return to the story itself. According to the letter written by Pieter Schagen people have bought the land from natives for the price of 60 guilders, although there are no records about the deed itself and all existing ones were written long after the purchase when the Dutch inhabited that island for several decades. But what about 24$? 19th century historians converted the value of 60 guilders from 17th century to U.S. dollars, the result was 24$. The point is that this number remained unchanged for about two more centuries, regardless inflation and changes of currency value. The results of modern reevaluations are quite different – some state that it equals 15,000$, others that it is almost 1000$. Though it is a moot, the fact that Indians didn’t sell their land for nothing. The most popular currency in New Netherland at that time were trinkets. By trinkets they meant kettles, axes, mattocks, musical instruments and drilling awls, all in all – for Native Americans it was very useful but not that expensive European stuff. The next moot is whether the land was really bought or just leased. Professor G. Edward White states that native tribes of Manhattan had a tradition of property rights and just offered the Dutch the right to hunt there, while Richard Howe notes that the Dutch, who relied rather on negotiations than on brute force (like other Europeans used to), thought the transaction was full and legitimate, making the land of Manhattan their property that could be later a subject to private purchases. One more interesting fact about this purchase – the Dutch probably purchased the island of Manhattan from Canarsies, who actually didn’t live there (they lived in the area near to Brooklyn). Historians say that Canarsie sought Dutch protection from the enemies, while the Dutch wanted to legitimize their land claims before the British.  It is also known that Weekquaesgeeks – real natives to Manhattan then fought with the Dutch, which led to Kieft’s war. As the result the Dutch drove the tribe of Weekquaesgeeks out of their land completely.

To conclude all mentioned above, it is worth stating that the entire brand of Manhattan being sold for glass beads is totally invalid. The local tribes understood the principles of trade, so they weren’t just giving away their homelands. And last but not least, Manhattan wasn’t actually sold, as Canarsies had no rights of owning the island and the deed was just an attempt to legitimize the claims.

References:

  1. Dixon, Faun Mortara. Native American Property Rights. 1st ed. 1981
  2. Johansen, Bruce E. The Encyclopedia of Native American Legal Tradition. 1st ed. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 1998
  3. Levy, Leonard W, Kenneth L Karst, and Adam Winkler. Encyclopedia Of The American Constitution. 1st ed. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2000
  4. Bastian, Dawn E and Judy K Mitchell. Handbook Of Native American Mythology. 1st ed. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO, 2004
  5. Barreiro, Jose?. Native American Expressive Culture. 1st ed. Ithaca, N.Y.: Akwe:kon Press, American Indian Program, 1994
  6. Grinde, Donald A. Native Americans. 1st ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2002
  7. Boxer, C. R. The Dutch Seaborne Empire, 1600-1800. 1st ed. New York: Knopf, 1965

Sample Essay on Bomb Robot Killing Dallas the Sniper

March 4th, 2017 Comments off

essay-on-drones-sniperDue to today’s sophisticated technologies our now has changed drastically and our future is to be changed as well. And it is even a bigger breakthrough when it comes to crimes counteraction and assistance in detecting the criminals. That is said about the Remotec F-5 robot made by Northrop Grumman company that was used by the police to neutralize the delinquent.

It is in Dallas, USA where for the first time in history a robot was used for the criminal elimination by the police. The incident in Texas, Dallas was the bloodiest terrorist attack for the US police after the events in September 11, 2001 as well as Oklahoma City bombing. Dallas Police had armed the robot with an explosive device to kill the criminal Micah X. Johnson who killed five policemen, injured seven plus two civilians during a street riot. The decision to use the bomb was made after unsuccessful negotiations with the suspect.

The robot Remotec F-5 costs around 180,000 dollars. It has inbuilt cameras and sensors, arm-manipulator, special additional wheels for climbing the stairs which helps to overcome not only long distances, but the stairs as well, robot climbed the second floor where the criminal was situated.

This is not the first time when the police use robots-sappers. In April 2015 the police of San Jose dissuaded a person from committing suicide, robot spoke with the man and brought him a pizza and a telephone. This also proves the fact that robots of such types can be used in life-threatening and high-stress situations. There was another case when the robot was used by the US troops during the military operations in the Middle East, where the terrorist who was armed with M18A1 Claymore mine got exploded by the robot-sapper. In Iraq, the military used inexpensive robot MARCbot as an independent explosive device many times. In addition to bomb disposal, it can break windows, spray tear gas, cut the wires, make and drill holes. The robot is not autonomous, a person controls every action by means of remote control.

According to the military experts, the murder in Dallas is the first time when the police used a robot to kill. As a rule, robots are used to neutralize suspicious items. However, since these machines are also equipped with video cameras and microphones from time to time they are used as means of communication with the suspects. The current legislation does not prohibit to use robots during police operations and after successful operation in Dallas this practice will presumably continue. And perhaps in the near future law will permit to single out a target to kill even if the target is out of sight. For example, with only target’s biometric information.

Robots have evolved from primitive to sophisticated mechanisms with efficient inbuilt devices and have largely surpassed the possibilities of men. In the coming decades, more and more sophisticated robots will become irreplaceable helpers of people. Robotic devices have long been used by the military, so it is logical that law enforcement agencies of different countries do not want to lag behind and want to use them in practice as well.

References:

  1. Killer robot used by Dallas police opens ethical debate by M. Liedtke and B. Fowler, July 6, 2016.
  2. Use of police robot to kill Dallas shooting suspect believed to be first in US history. The Guardian, June 25, 2016.
  3. How robot, explosives took out Dallas sniper in unprecedented way. CNN, by S. Sidner and M. Simon, July 12, 2016.
  4. Police ‘killer robot’ used in dallas stirs human rights controversy. Underground reporter by N. Prupis, July 8, 2016.
  5. Dallas sniper shootings: Police robot killed gunman following standoff in car park. International business times, by L. Dean, July 8, 2016.

Court Essay Slow Motion Video Makes People Look Guiltier

March 2nd, 2017 Comments off

people look guiltierVideo recording, including hidden cameras, is an admissible tool that helps to provide the evidence in court. Audio and video materials help the court to establish the circumstances under which the crime was committed. Jury watches video footage of crimes to identify whether the person is guilty or not and such videos help to analyze and define the events that took place and their seriousness. Video and audio evidence can be made in many different ways, due to household tape recorders, cell phones or surveillance system. But the validity of this evidence will be only accepted by court on condition that the authenticity of the recording itself was proven.

Along with the advantages of slow-motion videos, there are also disadvantages that cause bias in court. Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences, the United States of America released a research according to which the viewers watching a slow-motion video of the committed crime considered such crime to be thought through and calculated, but not impulsively committed.  The viewers were asked to watch two types of videos: slow-motion video and a regular speed video. The participants of the experiment who watched the slow-motion video version believe in premeditation of the committed crime.

There were also other experiments carried out to prove the bias nature of slow-mo video type. There were 489 participants in the experiment who were shown the video with the armed robbery where the clerk was shot. Watching the slow-mo video of the event, but not at regular speed, the viewers believed that the wrongdoer intended to kill the clerk. In another experiment the participants were shown a video with a football tackle with the involvement of the forbidden helmet-to-helmet trick. The viewers of slow-motion video state that the player who did the helmet-to-helmet hit acted intently towards the other player.

The question now arises of whether the jury must use slow-motion videos during court proceedings or due to its bias nature, videos of such type must be banned for good?! Such bias does a serious damage to the accused party and influences the whole court process in general. Premeditated crimes get more serious sentence and punishment accordingly and it does matter when you are charged with reflexive second-degree murder or the first-degree murder. Slow-motion videos can give a false impression that the actions were planned by the person. It does not necessarily mean that slow-motion videos must not be used and accepted in court, but it does mean that the benefit of such video types may cause serious consequences to the guilty party.

Slow motion videos can make boring moments look funny ones and unseen things visible ones. Videos of such type can make not guilty person a guilty one. It may seem not serious, but when it comes to returning the verdict and punishment, it is more than serious, it is of vital importance as for the footage evidence. Of course, it doesn’t refute the fact that the person who committed a crime will have to answer for his actions, but at least the verdict he receives will be fair.

References:

  1. Slow-motion videos of a crime can cause jurors to view wrongdoing as intentional, study finds. By Debra Cassens Weiss, August 11, 2016 Harmful actions may seem more sinister when viewed in slow motion, study finds. Los Angeles Times, by Amina Khan, August 2, 2016
  2. Slow-motion replays can make juries FOUR times more likely to convict someone of a crime, Daily Mail Online, by Ryan O’Hare, August 2, 2016
  3. Can slow-motion video bias jury trials? The Christian science monitor, by Nicole Orttung, August 8, 2016
  4. Slow-Motion Video Makes People Look More Guilty, Study Shows. How stuff works, by Yves Jeffcoat, August 10, 2016