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How to Write a Compare and Contrast Essay on Human Equality in the USA

July 23rd, 2017 Comments off

compare-and-contrastEveryone from high school history students to college Sociology majors may be tasked with writing a compare and contrast essay on human equality in the USA. To write an effective paper on this topic, it’s important to keep certain tips in mind. Although the specific requirements will vary depending on the nature of the assignment and the expectations of the instructor, there are general suggestions which will typically apply to anyone writing this type of essay.

  • Use Facts and Statistics: Unless your instructor specifically asks you to write a personal, opinion-based essay about human equality, make sure you include numerous relevant facts, statistics, and figures in your paper. Imagine that you are an attorney making an argument—the more solid evidence you provide, the stronger your argument will be.
  • Use Reliable Sources: Human equality is a controversial topic. As such, it’s easy to find unreliable sources making false claims. It’s also too easy to find sources which are outdated. When writing your essay, try to use statistics that are from within the past five years, and research all your sources to make sure they’re not biased in one particular direction.
  • Put It in Context: When writing about human equality—even if you’re writing specifically about current events—you have to remember that historical context is very important, especially in regards to this particular topic. For example, if your paper is about income inequality in the United States, you should include information about historical conditions which contributed to income inequality today.
  • Be Concise and Professional: Again, unless your professor directly instructed you to write the essay from a personal perspective, try to avoid including personal opinions. Make sure your language is concise, adding real value to your argument instead of just taking up space. The tone of this paper should be professional and informative.
  • Outline: When writing a compare and contrast essay on human equality in the USA, it’s always a good idea to start with an outline. Decide on the type of argument you are going to make, gather reliable sources that support your argument, then put together an outline to organize your thoughts. Break the essay down into paragraphs you expect to include, and find the specific information you’ll include in those paragraphs. Taking this step ensures that your essay makes clear points. On top of that, it also makes the process of writing the paper much simpler. When you know exactly what information you’re going to include and where you’re going to include it, you’ll save a lot of time.

Remember, these are only general tips. They’re useful, but they aren’t the only points to keep in mind when writing a compare and contrast essay on human equality. The expectations of a high-school student will be different from the expectations of a graduate student. Pay attention to the specific requirements for the assignment while writing your paper, and if anything is unclear, discuss it with your instructor early in the process.

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10 GIF-Characteristics That Describe Law Students

July 23rd, 2017 Comments off

As a law student, you are working hard to acquire all the knowledge of the law, history, and procedure you need to excel at this demanding profession. But there are some skills that can’t be learned simply through studying. It takes some time to cultivate, practice and refine them. Here are the top 10 essential characteristics that you need to become a good lawyer.

 

 

 

 

1. Communication Skills

Your job is all about making effective arguments! To do that, you need excellent skills in speaking and writing. Don’t forget that you also need to be a good listener; attorneys have to carefully listen to all aspects of a case to make a convincing argument

 2. Analytical Thinking


Attorneys must have the ability to analyze large amounts of information and come to logical conclusions about it. Often, there will be more than one possible conclusion, so you will need to evaluate all the options carefully.

  3. Creativity

Often, lawyers need to come up with unique solutions to problems. They have to stay one step ahead of their opponents, and that requires some creative problem-solving skills as well as thinking “outside the box.”

 4. Research Skills

To win your case, you will need to do research quickly and effectively to find out the relevant information. Good research helps you understand the needs of your clients and to formulate a legal strategy that makes sense for their cases.

5. The Ability to Get Along with People

Ultimately, being a lawyer is all about acting on people’s behalf. The best attorneys develop the ability to read people (such as jurors and witnesses) and to develop relationships of trust with those they work with.

6. Commitment to Continuing Education

The legal field, like everything else, is constantly changing. The best lawyers commit to staying informed of changing trends in order to better help their clients.

7. Good Judgment

Not only will you need to make reasonable conclusions based on limited knowledge, but you will also need to analyze these judgments carefully for potential weaknesses and to understand the weaknesses in your opponent’s arguments.

8. Strategic Thought

Great lawyers always work out strategies in the best interests of their clients. At times, that may mean putting aside their original goals to fight for what is in the client’s best interest.

9. Perseverance

Do you think it takes a long time and a lot of perseverance to get your law degree? That’s good practice for the profession, in which you will often have to spend many hours working on a case to be successful.

10. Accountability

As a lawyer, you will need to be accountable not only for your own actions, but for your clients’, your firm, and other people you work with. Begin taking on accountability and responsibility now, so to be prepared for your future career.

 

As you work hard to attain your law degree, don’t forget about working to develop these essential qualities. You won’t learn them in your coursework, but you can nurture them through sustained practice and efforts.

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Sample Essay on the Law Attitude to Abortion in Different States

July 23rd, 2017 Comments off

Ever since the historic Roe vs. Wade decision in 1973, the legalization of abortion has been a divisive and hotly debated issue in the USA, with public opinion split down the middle. But it might surprise you to learn what factors truly influence the opinion on this issue. While religion, race and educational level all play a small role, the sharpest difference exists based on a geographical region. This difference is most obvious when comparing the New England region (Connecticut, Massachusetts, Maine, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Vermont) with those of the Central South (Alabama, Arkansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Oklahoma, Tennessee and Texas).

Back in 1995, the Washington Post found an 18-point divide in public opinion between the New England and the South Central regions. Since that time, this divide has doubled, with a 35-point spread between these two regions, which still represent the highest and lowest populations of those in favor of legalized abortion. Support for legalized abortion in the South has dropped from 52 to 40 percent since 1995.

Even more telling, several of the Southern states have enacted anti-abortion laws in the last few years.  The TRAP (Targeted Regulation of Abortion Provider) laws have resulted in the closure of many abortion clinics in the South. In 2013, Texas passed such restrictive abortion legislation that all but six of its abortion providers were forced to close.

The statistics reveal that legislation such as this is a reflection of public opinion. A 2013 Pew Research poll found that in New England 75% of those surveyed believed that abortion should be legal in most cases, while only 40% of those surveyed in the South Central states believed this to be true. 52% of respondents in the South Central states believed abortion should be illegal in almost all cases, while only 20% of those from New England held this view.

The Pacific Coast and the Mid-Atlantic region also showed more liberal “pro-choice views”, while the MidWest and the South Atlantic regions veered more to the conservative camp. The Mountain West and the Great Lakes regions showed a far smaller divide, split almost 50/50.

Similar widening regional gaps in opinion can be found regarding other issues such as the legalization of same-sex marriage. The sharp differences, especially between the New England and South Central regions, can be at least partly explained by differences in religious beliefs, political affiliations, and social classes.

As such differences become more pronounced, it highlights the deep political division which has become the norm in American ideology. Is another American Civil War brewing? As these two regions become increasingly divided on a number of issues, it almost appears to be a possibility.

References:

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13 Funny Papers You May Be Assigned to Research for a Law Class

July 23rd, 2017 Comments off

You knew that studying the legal field would be hard work! You expected to study all kinds of weighty topics related to things like the Constitution, health care, and intellectual property. But you never thought you would be assigned topics that were strange and even funny.

Here are some surprising and funny papers that you may be asked to research for the next law class.

1. Love Contract

This is the legal ramification when employees at the same workplace enter a relationship? This is a contract which protects the employer by limiting the liability.

2. The Pre-Relationship Agreement

Dating has become so complicated that some couples now draft legal agreements on touchy subjects like when to say “I love you” and after that period of time, they may refer to themselves as a couple.

3. The Spam Arrest Agreement

The aggressive anti-spam company had a clause which required violators to pay a $2000 fine for sending spam emails.

4. Rock Stars’ Contract Clause Agreement

Rock stars are known for having seemingly petty clauses in their contracts with venues in which they perform. Van Halen in the 1980s, whose contract requested M&Ms in their dressing room with all the brown ones removed.

5. The “Love of the Game” Clause

Most professional athletes have a clause limiting exactly where and when they will play to reduce the probability of injury. But Michael Jordan did the opposite, specifically stating in his contract that he would play anywhere or at any time he wanted to.

6. Laws about the Regulation of Drones

The increasing civilian use of drones raises problems for governments as they try to regulate their use.

7. Laws about Bitcoins

Is this “cryptocurrency” really a good idea? How can it be regulated? Is it helping or harming the global economy?

8. Do Climate Change Refugees Have the Right to Refugee Status?

Residents of the Pacific Island nation of Kiribati applied for refugee status based on the effects of climate change.

9. The Free Coffee Clause

Sometimes attorneys hide an offer for a free coffee or a six-pack of beer deep within a contract as a way to find out whether their clients have actually read it or not.

10. Artist Contracts in Deep Space

Back in the early 1970s, when we believed that space traveling was going to become part of our daily lives, recording artists put language in their contracts to protect their copyright, trying to define those rights within “the Solar System” because “the Universe” was deemed too vague.

11. The Private Possession of Big Cats

Have you ever dreamed of owning a pet lion? Various countries find their own ways of regulating the ownership of large cats like tigers, lions, and leopards.

12. Laws Against the Impersonation of Clergy

You already know that it’s illegal to impersonate police officers. But in 1995, a man was arrested for impersonating a priest. Impersonating clergy members is also expressly forbidden in Alabama state law.

13. Laws about Mispronunciation

Be careful the next time you mispronounce a name! When teachers mispronounce the names of their students, it is considered a “tiny act of bigotry.” And the mispronunciation of “Arkansas” is specifically outlawed in that state.

So if you think that writing papers for your law classes are going to be boring, think again! Some of the topics you may encounter are so weird that they’re funny, and will provide you with a unique view of human nature and the laws that we need to govern it.

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How to Write a Barrister Brief That Will Count

March 16th, 2017 Comments off

write a barristerFirst of all, it must be defined what the barrister brief actually is. In the nutshell, the barrister brief is a set of instructions that are given to a barrister by a solicitor or a client directly, though it usually involves both the barrister and solicitor. The brief is prepared by solicitor with the aim to instruct and give all relevant information about the case, as well as to certain background facts to help barrister to do his work as quickly as possible to avoid delays.

To begin with, there are no set rules on how the structure of the briefs or instructions should appear, as much as there is no single list of documents that should be added to the brief. Everything depends on the case itself. However, there are some basic elements on how to write a barrister brief that must be considered by solicitor when preparing documents, files and instructions for barrister.

Preparation:

The most important part in preparation is discussing all peculiarities with the client to avoid any possible misunderstanding. It must be stated clearly that solicitor is going to brief a barrister, the issue about the basis the barrister will charge should also be discussed beforehand. The discussion should include client’s personal attitude to the settlement, compromise or the case in general as a brief with no statements from the client is de facto worthless.

Essentials:

  1. Timing. Doing everything in time sometimes means success. Delivering documents and other information in time gives the Counsel an opportunity to spend more time revising and trying to understand the case, rather than making quick decisions. The solicitor is to state precise time limitations and time by which you desire material to be sent back.
  2. As it was mentioned above – a brief without statements from the client is almost invalid, moreover those statements should be given in exact chronological order. It should also mention all relevant documents.
  3. Sign it. Make sure you have stated your name and contacts on the front cover. It makes the process of looking for the briefs way more time-efficient.
  4. Concerning implicated documents – they must be of good quality. All the copies should be presented in the strict order and must readable. Avoid using low-quality materials and black and white photos – they are invalid. It is also worth to make an electronic copy of your brief. It enables fast ways of searching through the document.
  5. As the main format of presenting, the brief is physical one be sure your physical copy is of good quality as well. It must be kept in a nice folder, printed only on one A4 side as pages may be rearranged later.
  6. Apply all relevant documents. If you doubt if the document is relevant you’d better apply it as it is easier and takes less time to ignore additional information than to seek for unknown. Remember, time means not only money but success as well.
  7. Organize the brief in a rational way. Stick to the order the documents are going to be revised on trial. Reorganize the brief if it is needed and for sure update it while drafting it.
  8. Frame a list of all documents that are going to be used in the brief for a barrister to understand what to expect.

How to Do a Well Written Employment Certificate

March 14th, 2017 Comments off

employment certificateJob search is a job of its own as it needs a lot of efforts and time. Employment certificate is a business card of every employee that may help the employer to learn your professional career by having read the document. What is written by you in the employment certificate can influence not just your current search of career, but your future in general. Knowing how to write employment certificate is a key to success and a good job position. Before composing the employment certificate, you need to read a few simple and important rules that should be taken into account.

Stick to reverse chronological order

Your employment path is best described in the reverse chronological order – from the last place of work to the first one. It has to be this way because the skills you used at first workplace could be forgotten now and it is your last experience that has a great professional relevance. Everything should be outlined as follows: after the name of the place of work it is better to mention your key achievements in the company. If you held several positions in the same company (for example, at first you worked as an assistant, then as a specialist, then as the head), indicate this as one record. Provide examples of what you have achieved in a previous job. Increased company’s sales? Reduced the company’s costs? Successfully managed a team of 50 people? Well, everything must be indicated here.

Avoid gaps and understatement

It may happen that you haven’t worked for some time, maybe you were on maternity or paternity leave or worked on not official grounds, it does not matter whether it was time off for education, leisure or any other reason, but it has to be mentioned. This experience must be included in your employment certificate. It is strongly recommended, especially if you have such gaps between the work places, so fill this information and describe what you were doing at that time. Specifying this information in your employment certificate is important as the more details you provide the better it is. It may also happen that you haven’t worked anywhere and even if you do not have any experience, you still have the positive qualities that may be of a great value to the employer.

Keep up to the structure

While writing an employment certificate, do not forget about the SMART principle. Everything you write has to be specific, measurable, attainable and time-based. You also need to mind the writing structure and put the information on previous workplaces in the following order: month and year when you started working, month and year of your dismissal; name of organization; company’s business profile; your position (or positions) with a list of the duties performed. The most important thing to be considered when compiling employment certificate is to provide only accurate information. Focus on your merits, correctly and competently enumerate them and without doubt truth will work better than a lie.

Knowing how to write employment certificate certainly increases the chances of getting an invitation for a job interview and the desired position.

Unveiling the 4 Myths about Law Education

March 12th, 2017 Comments off

law educationLegal profession binds together different professions, such as lawyer, prosecutor, judge, investigator, legal advisor, notary, international lawyer – all of the above mentioned are experts in one of the areas of law. Skilled experts in a law sphere are always in demand, that is why legal education is a must these days and a lot of people are striving for becoming professionals in the legal sphere. But there are a couple of myths that may dissuade you from choosing legal education.

1. Law education is very expensive

There are both schools that provide expensive and cheap law education and it depends on your budget and possibilities. But even if you pay a big sum it is the investment in yourself that will give you good education and rich knowledge. Legal profession is considered prestigious and lawyers are well respected and have many advantages in society, that is why all you pay for is not in vain.

2. Law education is for everyone

Legal education and law in general are suitable for morally stable people and not everyone. After all, lawyers are always under both psychological and physical pressure. At the same time a high level of intelligence and broad-based knowledge are needed. People of such professions must think clearly and need to quickly make logical decisions. Another fundamental quality for those who want to be engrossed in law are honesty and integrity as only such people are able to provide order and justice for the state.

3. Law education is all that you need

Visiting the lectures and seminars is not enough. Choosing this type of education and legal sphere in general you should be prepared for the fact that to become a demanding professional, you need to constantly improve your qualification, enrich your knowledge and be ready for the continuous trainings. It is needless to think that the work of a lawyer is very easy and knowing a few laws and important documents is enough. Legislation is constantly changing and you need to constantly monitor and adapt to these changes, such as abolition of laws and regulations, adoption of new ones.

4. Law education doesn’t have a wide range of professions

After the graduation you will face the problem of the job search. Experts in legal sphere have a great career opportunity and various spheres to work at. Another advantage of legal profession and law education is that with the legal background, you can go to work anywhere – prosecutor’s office, courts, lawyers and notaries offices, small and large business, police, registry offices, banks, institutions, schools, you can easily change the scope of activities. Most of the leading and well-paid job countries require legal education. Due to studious work you can grow up to the Attorney General or the judge of the tribunal. To this end, it is important to have an impeccable reputation, successful high-profile cases and make a lot of effort. It is recommended to stick to the rule “Festina lente”.

All in all, legal education requires constant self-education and self-improvement. But the end justifies the means.

Legal Writing Guide: Why and How to Start with Your Conclusion

March 10th, 2017 Comments off

legal writing guideLegal writing is a very special genre. As an author you are significantly limited to certain structures, logic and unwritten rules. Although, even a very organized form of a memorandum can’t guarantee that your reader will get the message you are trying to get across. For solving such a problem it is worth to use a technique that leads the reader from the top of the article right to the end – starting with your conclusion. You must get used to the role of the “leader” while framing your writings.

“But why is starting with conclusion important?” – one may ask. Such a beginning helps your readers understand what you are going to talk about, the main matters and the structure of your memo in general. There is, actually, no unified structure of writing a memo and starting with conclusion, the point is that you shape the form according to a certain logic of storytelling. Without a doubt the main goal of writing a memorandum is to tell about all relevant facts concerning your case, so the structure generally depends on the case itself. Though, there are some tips that are worth to use that you will find further in our legal writing guide.

First of all – keep your readers attention. If you fail to draw the attention in the very beginning, the chance that the main body is going to be read carefully and intelligently is almost equal to zero:

  • To draw the attention, try to start with the background story, mention who are the parties and what is the nature of the issue. While telling the backstory, try to avoid lengthy sentences and complex constructions as they distracts the attention. Don’t write the facts there either.
  • After having mentioned some general information, move on to describing the issue. Here is the time to use some facts. Use them to make a concrete basis for further story of the case in the main body. In this part you can also make several questions which you are going to answers. The point is that this opening is going to reveal the answers. But again, avoid complex structures, state it clear and short.
  • One more useful tip, while framing the conclusion in the opening is the use simple language. As it was mentioned above, using complicated language forms is completely inappropriate. The beginning of your writing must be clean and straightforward without any unnecessary information.
  • You may even try saying your sentences out loud. Check if they sound plain enough. Fix all awkward sentences.
  • Write as you would speak to your colleague. That sort of semi-formal speech is just perfect for writing. It involves a lot of special vocabulary to convey all the nuances you are talking about but with plain grammar at the same time.

Remember that the opening is going to tell your reader what to look for later on. Place the strongest writings in the very first paragraphs to emphasize them properly.

Sample Essay on the Island of Manhattan Sold and Bought for $24

March 8th, 2017 Comments off

manhattan paperMany of us heard the story how the Dutch, governed by Peter Minuit, bought the entire island of Manhattan from the natives for a miserable price – 24$. But is really the story that correct?

The island of Manhattan has been inhabited by the Native American tribes for centuries, it is not quite possible to state for sure, which one made the deal with the Dutch, though probably it was the Canarsie tribe. Some people argue that Indians, due to their believes, didn‘t understand how trade with Europeans works, but we know for sure natives’ concepts of possession. The point is that natives had the concept of possession and private property (not dissimilar to capitalist construct), though many tribes had communal land.

Let’s return to the story itself. According to the letter written by Pieter Schagen people have bought the land from natives for the price of 60 guilders, although there are no records about the deed itself and all existing ones were written long after the purchase when the Dutch inhabited that island for several decades. But what about 24$? 19th century historians converted the value of 60 guilders from 17th century to U.S. dollars, the result was 24$. The point is that this number remained unchanged for about two more centuries, regardless inflation and changes of currency value. The results of modern reevaluations are quite different – some state that it equals 15,000$, others that it is almost 1000$. Though it is a moot, the fact that Indians didn’t sell their land for nothing. The most popular currency in New Netherland at that time were trinkets. By trinkets they meant kettles, axes, mattocks, musical instruments and drilling awls, all in all – for Native Americans it was very useful but not that expensive European stuff. The next moot is whether the land was really bought or just leased. Professor G. Edward White states that native tribes of Manhattan had a tradition of property rights and just offered the Dutch the right to hunt there, while Richard Howe notes that the Dutch, who relied rather on negotiations than on brute force (like other Europeans used to), thought the transaction was full and legitimate, making the land of Manhattan their property that could be later a subject to private purchases. One more interesting fact about this purchase – the Dutch probably purchased the island of Manhattan from Canarsies, who actually didn’t live there (they lived in the area near to Brooklyn). Historians say that Canarsie sought Dutch protection from the enemies, while the Dutch wanted to legitimize their land claims before the British.  It is also known that Weekquaesgeeks – real natives to Manhattan then fought with the Dutch, which led to Kieft’s war. As the result the Dutch drove the tribe of Weekquaesgeeks out of their land completely.

To conclude all mentioned above, it is worth stating that the entire brand of Manhattan being sold for glass beads is totally invalid. The local tribes understood the principles of trade, so they weren’t just giving away their homelands. And last but not least, Manhattan wasn’t actually sold, as Canarsies had no rights of owning the island and the deed was just an attempt to legitimize the claims.

References:

  1. Dixon, Faun Mortara. Native American Property Rights. 1st ed. 1981
  2. Johansen, Bruce E. The Encyclopedia of Native American Legal Tradition. 1st ed. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 1998
  3. Levy, Leonard W, Kenneth L Karst, and Adam Winkler. Encyclopedia Of The American Constitution. 1st ed. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2000
  4. Bastian, Dawn E and Judy K Mitchell. Handbook Of Native American Mythology. 1st ed. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO, 2004
  5. Barreiro, Jose?. Native American Expressive Culture. 1st ed. Ithaca, N.Y.: Akwe:kon Press, American Indian Program, 1994
  6. Grinde, Donald A. Native Americans. 1st ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2002
  7. Boxer, C. R. The Dutch Seaborne Empire, 1600-1800. 1st ed. New York: Knopf, 1965

Roman Empire and Roman Law: The Lessons of Human History

March 6th, 2017 Comments off

roman empireThe Roman Empire – a state that existed for more than a millennium and had the greatest influence on history, culture, language and laws of Europe. A state that had started as a kingdom and ended up as two empires. Such an enormous country was sure to have a well-balanced system of rules, rights and laws to govern all its provinces, that rarely shared similar customs and rites.

The History of Roman law dates back to the times when Rome was just a Mediterranean kingdom. Latini – the natives, had own rules and customs of governing, having property and solving disputes. It was not a system, though, rather a number of unwritten laws that often contradicted each other. According to a legend, citizens of Rome decided to write down the laws to avoid contradictions. After eight years of struggle, the plebeian class convinced the patricians to send delegates to Greek cities to copy their law system. No matter if it was a reality or not, the Roman law had changed significantly over time.

Roman law as many other ancient legal systems was based on the principle of personality, it means that the law of the state could be applied only to citizens of a state (ius civile). Foreigners had rights in the Roman state only in case of mutual treaties that granted protection, otherwise a foreigner was considered as property and any Roman citizen that could seize him or her and proclaim the rights of possession. Though it was in the interests of the state to protect the foreigners, as, in most cases, they were traders, Ius gentium was created – a legal system that was applied when one of the subjects was non-citizen.

The oldest written legal text of the Roman state was “the Twelve Tablets” dating from 5th century CE. Later, with the adoption of the principle of personality, Ius civile was developed – a very ceremonial and symbolic legislative system that was rather representation of old rites and ways of solving disputes. The result of numerous expansion and growing trade interests of the Roman state was Ius gentium. Due to its flexibility it became very popular among magistrates.

Romans used to divide their laws into written and unwritten (ius scriptum, ius non scriptum). Unwritten law represented customs, while written law was based literally on any written source. Written law could be performed in five ways:

Leges (singular lex, the earliest one – the Twelve Tablets) – concerned matters of family law, torts, offences and other legal procedures.

Edicta – were usually issued by praetors (one praetor office concerned citizens, another non-citizens). As in later republic edicta became a type of reform – leges ceased to be the main source of private law.

Senatus consulta – were not actually a legal document, rather an advice to magistrates, which could be then accepted. In the time of early empire Roman senate ceased to have real power and their resolutions just supported the proposals of the emperor. Later on, only emperor’s proposals had real legislative power.

Constitutiones principum – were in fact the emperor’s legislative expressions.

Responsa prudentium – this type of written law represented answers of learned lawyers. Those legal advisers were not professionals and had no legislative power, they were just educated men giving free legal pieces of advice. Although during the reign of Augustus some of them were given power to advice with the emperor’s authority.

References:

  1. Anderson, Craig. Roman Law. 1st ed. Dundee: Dundee University Press, 2009
  2. Nicholas, Barry. An Introduction To Roman Law. 1st ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1962
  3. Jolowicz, H. F and Barry Nicholas. Historical Introduction To The Study Of
  4. Roman Law. 1st ed. Cambridge [England]: University Press, 1972
  5. Tellegen-Couperus, O. E. A Short History Of Roman Law. 1st ed. London: Routledge, 1993
  6. Buckland, W. W, Arnold Duncan McNair McNair, and F. H Lawson. Roman Law & Common Law. 1st ed. Cambridge [England]: University Press, 1952
  7. Vinogradoff, Paul. Roman Law In Medieval Europe. 1st ed. Cambridge: Speculum Historiale, 1968