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Sample Essay on Bomb Robot Killing Dallas the Sniper

March 4th, 2017 Comments off

essay-on-drones-sniperDue to today’s sophisticated technologies our now has changed drastically and our future is to be changed as well. And it is even a bigger breakthrough when it comes to crimes counteraction and assistance in detecting the criminals. That is said about the Remotec F-5 robot made by Northrop Grumman company that was used by the police to neutralize the delinquent.

It is in Dallas, USA where for the first time in history a robot was used for the criminal elimination by the police. The incident in Texas, Dallas was the bloodiest terrorist attack for the US police after the events in September 11, 2001 as well as Oklahoma City bombing. Dallas Police had armed the robot with an explosive device to kill the criminal Micah X. Johnson who killed five policemen, injured seven plus two civilians during a street riot. The decision to use the bomb was made after unsuccessful negotiations with the suspect.

The robot Remotec F-5 costs around 180,000 dollars. It has inbuilt cameras and sensors, arm-manipulator, special additional wheels for climbing the stairs which helps to overcome not only long distances, but the stairs as well, robot climbed the second floor where the criminal was situated.

This is not the first time when the police use robots-sappers. In April 2015 the police of San Jose dissuaded a person from committing suicide, robot spoke with the man and brought him a pizza and a telephone. This also proves the fact that robots of such types can be used in life-threatening and high-stress situations. There was another case when the robot was used by the US troops during the military operations in the Middle East, where the terrorist who was armed with M18A1 Claymore mine got exploded by the robot-sapper. In Iraq, the military used inexpensive robot MARCbot as an independent explosive device many times. In addition to bomb disposal, it can break windows, spray tear gas, cut the wires, make and drill holes. The robot is not autonomous, a person controls every action by means of remote control.

According to the military experts, the murder in Dallas is the first time when the police used a robot to kill. As a rule, robots are used to neutralize suspicious items. However, since these machines are also equipped with video cameras and microphones from time to time they are used as means of communication with the suspects. The current legislation does not prohibit to use robots during police operations and after successful operation in Dallas this practice will presumably continue. And perhaps in the near future law will permit to single out a target to kill even if the target is out of sight. For example, with only target’s biometric information.

Robots have evolved from primitive to sophisticated mechanisms with efficient inbuilt devices and have largely surpassed the possibilities of men. In the coming decades, more and more sophisticated robots will become irreplaceable helpers of people. Robotic devices have long been used by the military, so it is logical that law enforcement agencies of different countries do not want to lag behind and want to use them in practice as well.

References:

  1. Killer robot used by Dallas police opens ethical debate by M. Liedtke and B. Fowler, July 6, 2016.
  2. Use of police robot to kill Dallas shooting suspect believed to be first in US history. The Guardian, June 25, 2016.
  3. How robot, explosives took out Dallas sniper in unprecedented way. CNN, by S. Sidner and M. Simon, July 12, 2016.
  4. Police ‘killer robot’ used in dallas stirs human rights controversy. Underground reporter by N. Prupis, July 8, 2016.
  5. Dallas sniper shootings: Police robot killed gunman following standoff in car park. International business times, by L. Dean, July 8, 2016.

Court Essay Slow Motion Video Makes People Look Guiltier

March 2nd, 2017 Comments off

people look guiltierVideo recording, including hidden cameras, is an admissible tool that helps to provide the evidence in court. Audio and video materials help the court to establish the circumstances under which the crime was committed. Jury watches video footage of crimes to identify whether the person is guilty or not and such videos help to analyze and define the events that took place and their seriousness. Video and audio evidence can be made in many different ways, due to household tape recorders, cell phones or surveillance system. But the validity of this evidence will be only accepted by court on condition that the authenticity of the recording itself was proven.

Along with the advantages of slow-motion videos, there are also disadvantages that cause bias in court. Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences, the United States of America released a research according to which the viewers watching a slow-motion video of the committed crime considered such crime to be thought through and calculated, but not impulsively committed.  The viewers were asked to watch two types of videos: slow-motion video and a regular speed video. The participants of the experiment who watched the slow-motion video version believe in premeditation of the committed crime.

There were also other experiments carried out to prove the bias nature of slow-mo video type. There were 489 participants in the experiment who were shown the video with the armed robbery where the clerk was shot. Watching the slow-mo video of the event, but not at regular speed, the viewers believed that the wrongdoer intended to kill the clerk. In another experiment the participants were shown a video with a football tackle with the involvement of the forbidden helmet-to-helmet trick. The viewers of slow-motion video state that the player who did the helmet-to-helmet hit acted intently towards the other player.

The question now arises of whether the jury must use slow-motion videos during court proceedings or due to its bias nature, videos of such type must be banned for good?! Such bias does a serious damage to the accused party and influences the whole court process in general. Premeditated crimes get more serious sentence and punishment accordingly and it does matter when you are charged with reflexive second-degree murder or the first-degree murder. Slow-motion videos can give a false impression that the actions were planned by the person. It does not necessarily mean that slow-motion videos must not be used and accepted in court, but it does mean that the benefit of such video types may cause serious consequences to the guilty party.

Slow motion videos can make boring moments look funny ones and unseen things visible ones. Videos of such type can make not guilty person a guilty one. It may seem not serious, but when it comes to returning the verdict and punishment, it is more than serious, it is of vital importance as for the footage evidence. Of course, it doesn’t refute the fact that the person who committed a crime will have to answer for his actions, but at least the verdict he receives will be fair.

References:

  1. Slow-motion videos of a crime can cause jurors to view wrongdoing as intentional, study finds. By Debra Cassens Weiss, August 11, 2016 Harmful actions may seem more sinister when viewed in slow motion, study finds. Los Angeles Times, by Amina Khan, August 2, 2016
  2. Slow-motion replays can make juries FOUR times more likely to convict someone of a crime, Daily Mail Online, by Ryan O’Hare, August 2, 2016
  3. Can slow-motion video bias jury trials? The Christian science monitor, by Nicole Orttung, August 8, 2016
  4. Slow-Motion Video Makes People Look More Guilty, Study Shows. How stuff works, by Yves Jeffcoat, August 10, 2016

How to Write an Event Report

February 22nd, 2017 Comments off

How to write an event report
Some academic disciplines require writing a post event report, and students’ knowledge of how to write an event report is of the utmost importance while challenging a good mark. The process of writing shall include three stages of pre-writing, while writing, and post-writing, each of which includes certain points that have to be taken into consideration.  Advice on how to write an event report would be useful for everybody from the schoolchildren who have to write a report on a school play to the elderly ballet lovers who would like to share their post-performance emotions on the senior center blog.

From the outset, it is necessary to emphasize that a report is not the same as an essay. While the latter concentrates on emotion and personal opinion, the first one has a more factual approach. Apparently, a report usually focuses on gaining a particular purpose; it is short, concise, and well-structured. An event report may describe a conference, official meeting, concert, play, or lecture. Despite all of these papers have their specificity, there are a number of points peculiar to all of them.

Before Writing an Event Report

It is worth spending a bit of time to think about the elements that the report will include. In case there is a required structure from the teacher, all the elements should be clear to a writer, so that he or she will pay attention to them during an event. For the report to be useful, a writer should keep in mind the target audience of an event report as well as the reader’s level of the topic knowledge. This stage also embraces the “watching” process accompanied by noting some key information that will be needed afterward. It includes names of the participants, places or events that were mentioned, and other information that will be useful while writing a report. Relying on memory is not a really good idea because it has a tendency to erase seemingly unnecessary details that may be of value to both a writer and a reader. Moreover, there is no need to postpone the writing for a long time since it will be much harder to recall all necessary data that has to be on the list.

While Writing an Event Report

In order to be well accepted by the reader, a report should be logical and meaningful. Therefore, a writer has to think and rethink the structure of an event report. Usually, it shall include an introduction, the main part, and a conclusion. The text should be neither too detailed nor too general. In the majority of cases, a writer needs to present an impersonal feedback on an attended event. The language shall be free of informal vocabulary and any kind of emotions.

After Writing an Event Report

There is lots of work left after the text has been written. The time spent on both proofreading and editing will considerably improve the quality of an event report. There is a particular need to pay attention to punctuation, wording, grammar, and style of an event report. Asking for help from a friend or a colleague on this stage may be useful and efficient since it is hard to spot own mistakes.

How to Write an Internship Report

February 22nd, 2017 Comments off

How to Write an Internship ReportHow to Write an Internship Report

Nowadays a successful internship can often define one’s further employment and future advancement on the career ladder. Becoming an intern in an already established company offers various opportunities and gives valuable experience. At the same time, critical feedback is crucial for both parties – the intern and the employer, thus, each student or any other active participant needs to know how to write an internship report. Despite the fact that often the task of objectively evaluating the pros and cons might look easy, it still involves various complications, such as understanding of the core functions of the firm, its primary needs, and what talent and potential are required to gain sustainable leadership and success. Therefore, knowing how to write an internship report is crucially important for one’s academic and future professional career.

Importance of Writing an Internship Report

A large enterprise or any other facilities that can potentially become one’s next employer are always interested in providing the best possible feedback to their interns as well as interns are doing everything to show their skills and perform well in the temporary position. Before starting writing, each intern needs to carefully study the main objectives of the company and where it stands in its field of business. In order to make the process of writing the report more convenient the information that will be used should be divided into subgroups. Each internship report might informatively vary depending on the field of work where the internship has been held. Nevertheless, a well-written internship report needs to be divided into several sections, each of which will describe and evaluate different activities and processes that have been implemented during the internship.

The Main Elements of an Internship Report

Hence, an internship report should include:

  • An introduction that gives more inside information about the company, its details, field of work, who were the supervisors, and what was the primary focus of the internship;
  • The central section that would in detail discuss a particular case, activity or the general tasks and responsibilities, which the intern had in a certain company;
  • The third section might include a Case Summary that would draw conclusions from the intern’s experience gained during the internship;
  • The final section might vary from Self Evaluation to Evaluation of the Facility and how well it corresponded to its primary function of serving as an arena for the intern’s development and growth in the company.

General Characteristics of an Internship Report

The sections of the internship report also vary depending on the field of work.  Nevertheless, regardless of the primary function of the internship, each internship report needs to provide accurate and comprehensive information about the conducted activities and gained experience. Internships often offer their participants future working positions that could become a great start to a fantastic career. In other cases, they provide a deep and meaningful understanding the primary responsibilities of the workers of the company, its objectives, policies, and plans for the future.

Therefore, when writing an internship report it is important to remember that this experience is a possible chance to make a good impression and find a job. Consequently, the report should resemble a comprehensive opinion on the internship, summarize the gained knowledge and how it influenced the intern regarding his or her future plans, goals, and ambitions. Finally, each individual should link the advancement of the personal career goals with the experience gained from the internship to have a better understanding of the influence made by the company.

How to Write an Essay Introduction for University

February 22nd, 2017 Comments off

how to write an essay introduction for university
In essence, an introduction generally is the opening paragraph of any particular university essay. In this respect, it is of particular importance for students to know how to write an essay introduction for university. An essay introduction plays a crucial role in the establishing the theme of the work and grabbing the attention of the readers. This part of an essay acts as a kind of a plan that outlines the main points and arguments of the paper. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the main steps of how to write an essay introduction for university.

Attract the Attention of the Readers

It is important to begin the introduction of an essay with a sentence that grabs the reader’s attention and interest. The best ways to do this is to start with indicating something interesting, providing and considering an interesting quote, providing a certain statistic, or just by telling a story. It is crucial to start an essay with some original and interesting angle through which it would be possible to engage readers in the topic. For instance, if it is needed to state that smoking marijuana is beneficial for human health, it is possible to start the introduction of an essay by referencing certain recent research on the topic from a credible source. There is no doubt that such strategy will attract the reader’s attention and interest while introducing the subject of an essay.

Provide Background Information

It is not advisable to start an essay introduction too broad, for example, by considering how literature helps people to comprehend life. It would be much better to tell the readers what it is needed to know to get their interest in the provided theme. In this respect, it can be stated that the accurate and well-thought-out provision of the needed background will help the readers to better comprehend the matter being presented. As such, this information will provide the context and the overall idea that can be vital to arguing and explaining the main points.

State the Thesis

As a matter of fact, a good thesis statement should reveal the main essence of a university essay. The thesis statement declares a debatable and argumentative point. Hence, the thesis cannot be an accomplished fact, as it should assert a certain position on a particular topic that a reader can potentially debate with. In a single and clear clause, it sums up the overall mission and purpose of a university essay. In addition, it also acts as the main idea which the writer would argue in the work.

Limit the Excessive Information

Eventually, a good and exemplary introduction of a university essay should not provide analysis and describe arguments, which should be presented in the body paragraphs. An essay introduction should introduce and arrange the main point, rather than provide information to support it. Finally, despite the fact that the introduction is a kind of a plan for the rest of the work, it is not advisable to precisely describe all the methods and techniques which would be revealed in the essay.

How to Write an Election Speech

February 22nd, 2017 Comments off

how to write an election speech
One of the most decisive features characterizing the twenty-first century implies that the politics has an unprecedented influence on each aspect of the societal life from a daily routine of an average citizen to the global issues alike global warming. In this context, it should be noted that the success of a political group largely depends on the efficient application of the available communication tools including the knowledge how to write an election speech. Therefore, being aware of how to write an election speech that would be consistent, effective, and persuasive has become a highly requested skill being particularly helpful for anyone willing to build a successful professional career.

The purpose of an election speech

The primary aim of an election speech implies gaining the support of an audience as an electoral group. Subsequently, the speaker should present a motivating and convincing arguments proving both the validity of the candidate’s actions’ plan and personal commitment to bring these ideas to life. In this context, it should be noted that elaborating a comprehensive and sustainable program is not enough to win the electoral preferences. Moreover, a candidate may receive an advantage over the rivals only in the case if his or her message was properly communicated and delivered to the target audience.

In this context, it should be noted that writing an election speech should not be associated exceptionally with the national politics. In particular, an effective election speech may also become an important tool for those willing to participate in the student government or get a job promotion. Subsequently, in a broader context, elaborating an election speech may be treated as an essential skill aimed at persuading the other people to take up certain attitude. Therefore, regardless of the sphere of application, the speechwriter should be aware of the several key tips underlying the candidate’s success.

Guidelines to write an election speech

  • Adhere to the basic principles of composition

Being primarily focused on presenting the arguments to gain the support of an audience, the speechwriter may neglect some of the basic principles underlying the text composition. At the same time, alike any other type of writing, an election speech should also involve a clear beginning, main body, and conclusion. Particularly, in the case of an election speech, the introduction implies a remarkable importance in terms receiving the listeners’ appreciation.

  • Concentrate on the major message

In many cases, the candidate’s election program involves a wide range of concepts and issues being addressed. At the same time, while preparing text, the speechwriter should concentrate on a single, unconventional, and catchy message which would remain in the listeners’ memory for a long time.

  • Take into account the audience being addressed

Before preparing an election speech, it is primarily important to define the key interests and concerns of the audience being addressed. Subsequently, the speechwriter should primarily appeal to the issues that are essentially important to the listeners. This tip also indicates the need to prepare a unique text to each specific occasion.

  • Appeal to the emotions of the audience

An election speech should necessarily involve an emotional component. Otherwise, it would have no distinctions from the candidates’ election program. At the same time, the text should not be overburdened with the emotions while, in this case, the listeners may consider a candidate to be a populist. Therefore, the speechwriter should put its best efforts to keep the balance between the facts and emotions.

Legal Education and Diversity in Law Recruitment

December 10th, 2016 Comments off

legal-education
Legal education takes a special place in the education system of the world. This is due to the fact that legal profession is aimed at solving many issues connected with functioning of the state and provision of full protection of civil rights and freedoms. Lawyers make decisions that define the authority and respect of the state and decisions that are extremely important for the fate of every man. Poorly educated lawyers are a risk for both government and society.

Legal education needs further development and constant improvements to be implemented to provide the state with well qualified lawyers. It is needed to hold a series of practical steps towards the internationalization of legal education. The internationalization process is based on three main elements: presence of international component in the content of curricula and programs, international mobility of students and professors, existence of programs of cooperation and mutual assistance.

Prestige Is Not Enough

Institute of Higher Education of China, Jiao Tong University conducted a global ranking of universities and among the top ten universities providing legal education there are six US universities and four universities of the UK. Indicators that were taken  into consideration during the study are: opinion of students, research and scientific performance, admission to the university criteria, ratio of students and teachers, financial cost on providing library and computer equipment to students, costs spent on students, not related to educational process factors (sport, health facilities attendance), quality of graduates (percentage of graduates who received a diploma with honors), employment prospects of graduates, percentage of students who passed the full course. The components of education quality are different, but the most important ones were: students opinion, effectiveness of admission procedure to institutions, human and material resources in universities, overall reputation of institutions that provide legal education.

Good Job Position

Good legal job position can be received if you have good knowledge in legal sphere and know the how to implement your knowledge. There are also other factors that promote being selected for a good position in legal sphere. The employee must have all the necessary personal qualities and a set amount of professional knowledge and skills. These personal qualities are: intelligence, developed sense of duty and responsibility to perform their duties, integrity and independence of the decision, dedication, wish to counteract injustice, high morality, professional ethics, personal integrity, sociability. But apart from theoretical knowledge, the person must also have good practical skills. The person must be good at public speaking, know how to hold the meetings, conversations and other forms of communication with the public.

Law Recruitment Ways

There are many ways via which law recruitment is made. First, recruiting candidates for the vacant position on recommendations of friends and relatives who work or used to work in the searching company. Second, “independent” candidates who are looking for work independently without reference to the agency and employment service by straightly calling the organization. Third, the media, the most common recruitment technique is advertisements of the available vacancies.

There is a recruitment diversity in legal education, but the main aim is to hire a highly skilled person who will be a real asset in the company.

4 Laws of Legal Writing Every Lawyer Should Know

December 9th, 2016 Comments off

legal-writing-rules
Legal language acts as a carrier of information and as means of influence on people. Lawyers draft the laws, conduct business correspondence, write interrogation protocols and other regulations, indictments, claims, judgments, treaties, agreements, applications and complaints due to the use of legal writing language. In legal writing practice we can encounter the texts where it is needed to stick to strict formal writing regulations (certificates, acts), but there are other text types that are written in a more free form. Below you may find four legal writing rules every lawyer should know.

1 Be Persuasive and Argumentative

Every legal writing should be presented in a persuasive way, so it must be not only a competent text, but also a reasoned and argumentative one. The main aim is to convince the reader or the listener. The written, information must be clear, as clarity of expression promotes the persuasion. For a lawyer the ability to speak eloquently and write literary quality papers is a must. Not depending on the communicative role, whether the lawyer is making the bills, carrying out the investigation, delivering a verdict, protecting the rights of the defendants, the main task of such a professional is to explain the rule of law to every citizen. Lawyers deal with a variety of life cases on a daily basis, they need to correctly assess situation, take right decision and convince those who addressed them in the correctness of their point of view. Below

2 Mind the Legal Writing Components

There are three legal writing components that are to be taken into consideration while compiling a legal writing text.

  • First, logic (data – analysis – conclusion), you need to follow the compliance with the laws of logic while presenting the material.
  • Second, objectiveness (scientific facts), argumentativeness and reasonableness, built on facts and special requirements for the selection of words that should provide understanding and clarity of the text.
  • Third component is generalization, standardization and consistency.

3 Use Plain Language

Everything in legal writing must be presented in the most clear, precise, simple and compact way. Therefore, speaking about legal language we often talk about the simplicity of style. Use of metaphors, idiomatic expressions and complex constructions are not appropriate. Legal writings, except for academic papers are written in an official-business style. Consequently, such papers have distinctive features, their “technique” is not typical or even acceptable for other stylistic genres.

4 Use the Right Terminology

There are three types of terms which can be used in legal writing: common, technical and legal. However, despite this diversity, terminology must be clear to the addressee and adequately reflect certain concepts. There are a lot of state expressions known as “legal formulae” in legal writing, such as: make a deal, in accordance with the law, provisions of this agreement, heir to the law, divorce, preventive measures. There are many other expressions of this type, they are easily remembered and are widely used in legal sphere.

Legal writing rules are very important for every lawyer, they are used in the course of investigation and during court hearings, in the course of negotiations and business meetings with the clients, it greatly contributes to mutual exchange of ideas and thoughts.

Sample Essay on Lobbying and Legal Advancement

December 8th, 2016 Comments off

lobbying-essay
In a modern democratic society there are many different voluntary associations of people (interest groups) seeking to bring their requirements and demands to the authorities. Some of them use economic means of influence, others use discreet ways and act in the corridors of power which promote the adoption by authorities of various solutions using formal and informal relationships in government.

The most common form of influence made by these organizations on governmental authorities is called lobbying. Sometimes it is associated with corruption and illegal methods of influence on decision-making process by government bodies. As a rule, lobbyists act as intermediaries in different kinds of transactions between interest groups and politicians, including legislators and members of the government, thereby making significant influence on the formation of political course of the country.

Lobbying is important for various spheres of society. At the same time it has both positive, and negative effects. Among the advantages we may find the fact that lobbyism is a tool of interaction between representative and executive bodies. It can be seen as a way of mutual balancing and reconciliation between a variety of interests. Lobby groups, defending sometimes diametrically opposed interests, help to preserve the balance of different groups and reach consensus in decision-making process. Also, it creates opportunities for minority interests, therefore acting as a specific form of manifestation of political pluralism.

Concerning the disadvantages of lobbyism, it can significantly affect stability and operation of public policy. Some measures can appear under certain conditions in the form of social injustice manifestation. On the one hand, it promotes the “improvement” of society due to constant accommodation of interests between the state and civil society respectively, and on the other hand, it could lead to formation of a criminal state, defending narrow group interests and shaking the stability of society. Lobbying in the media, which, due to its powerful influence on the minds and behavior of people in politics, is called as “fourth branch of government.” Lobbying in the West and in the United States of America is rather a prestigious type of activity, some people call it as “fifth branch of government”.

In different countries, lobby procedure is regulated differently. Concerning the model that exists in the United States of America, back in 1946, America had a special law (Federal Regulation of Lobbying Act), which guarantees the right of citizens to apply to the authorities with complaints. Under this law, lobbyists are required to register with the Secretary of the Senate and Clerk of the House of Representatives, notifying their area of ??interest. Lobbyists must also provide a written statement with the following data: name and address of their establishment; name and address of the employer; terms of employment; amount of remuneration paid to them. By the way, the law does not limit the amount of money spent on lobbying, but it is prohibited to use federal funds. In addition, lobbyists provide the relevant bodies with their financial report four times a year.

Lobbying is a mediator between the society and the state, attracting the attention of authorities to the urgent social and political problems.

Resources:

  1. Cave, T. (2016). The truth about lobbying: 10 ways big business controls government. [online] the Guardian. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2014/mar/12/lobbying-10-ways-corprations-influence-government.
  2. Fagan, C. (2016). What is ‘lobbying’ and its link to corruption? | Space for Transparency. [online] Blog.transparency.org. Available at: http://blog.transparency.org/2009/09/14/what-is-%E2%80%98lobbying%E2%80%99-and-its-link-to-corruption/
  3. org, (2016). Influence & Lobbying | OpenSecrets. [online] Opensecrets.org. Available at: https://www.opensecrets.org/influence/
  4. gov. (2016). Union Members Summary. [online] Available at: http://www.bls.gov/news.release/union2.nr0.htm
  5. org. (2016). 5 Digital Governance Models. [online] Available at: http://www.aedev.org/ict4d/www.knowledgefordevelopment.com/ICT4D03SP/pub/Phases_of_eGovernmenthw4.htm

Sample Essay on Global Intellectual Property Regime

December 8th, 2016 Comments off

intellectual-property-essay

Twenty-first century is often called the time of intellectual and informational evolution, century where knowledge and intellectual potential are highly valued and appreciated by people. It is well known that knowledge is power, but it is also wealth. Not only physical type of work has to be valued and paid, intellectual work too.

Nowadays, people are constantly faced with products protected by intellectual property. We read books, watch movies, listen to music, and this is a small part of what intellectual property involves. The term “intellectual property” is widely used these days all over the world. In 1967 Stockholm Convention was signed. On its basis the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) was founded.

Intellectual property products consist of advances in science, literature, art and other forms of creative activity in manufacturing, including discoveries, inventions, innovations, designs, computer programs, databases, expert systems, know-how, trade secrets , trademarks, trade names and service marks. The concept of intellectual property, in particular copyright concept takes its roots since in times of ancient Greece.  Legislators of that time acknowledged social, political and economic value of works of literature and art. Creations of writers and poets were presented to the public in an undistorted form.

It was England, where in 1710 the first intellectual property law was adopted, known as the “Statute of Anne” containing one of the most important principles of writing – principle of “copyright”, the right for protection of published work, prohibition on duplicating the work without author’s consent. For every intellectual property product people got a rewarding fee. Such people were subsidized by governors, their prosperity was entirely dependent on the goodwill of the latter. For example, Leonardo da Vinci was forced to admit: “I serve to those people who pay me.”

It should be noted that, historically, the main factors that influenced the formation of the Institute of Intellectual Property were: division of labor, separation of intellectual work into particular type of activity, transformation of intellectual products of labor into commodities, their involvement in the trade market.

Although the system of intellectual property protection in the world meets international standards, the system itself is very imperfect. There is a need to develop new principles of protecting the rights of owners of intellectual property. Among the most common types of current intellectual property and copyright violations are the use of objects without signing any contracts or agreements with the author-owner, or no indication of the author’s name when using the product.

The rapid growth of the role and value of intellectual property in the socio-economic development of society, implementation of creative intellectual work as the most important factor for successful production and commercial operation of modern high-tech enterprises, increase of their competitiveness in domestic and foreign markets complicates the creation of a reliable and effective protection system of intellectual property.

Intellectual property on a global level has become the driving point that will give a powerful push to development of economic security and value of labor. Introduction of laws on intellectual rights gives us the green light to build prosperous, intellectually-oriented society.

Resources:

  1. int. (2016). WIPO – World Intellectual Property Organization. [online] Available at: http://www.wipo.int/portal/en/index.html
  2. 99designs Blog. (2013). 5 famous copyright infringement cases (what you can learn). [online] Available at: https://99designs.com.au/blog/tips/5-famous-copyright-infringement-cases/
  3. org.au. (2016). Find an Answer. [online] Available at: http://www.copyright.org.au/acc_prod/ACC/Find_an_Answer/ACC/Public_Content/Find_an_Answer.aspx?hkey=b0de2cd4-daa3-47da-95a5-1e7ecdc8dddc
  4. qld.gov.au. (2016). What are my rights as a holder of a registered trademark? | Queensland Government. [online] Available at: https://www.business.qld.gov.au/business/support-tools-grants/tools/intellectual-property-info-kit/browse/names/registered-trademark-rights
  5. Anti-abuse.org. (2016). What Does Copyright Law Protect? | The Anti-Abuse Project. [online] Available at: http://www.anti-abuse.org/what-does-copyright-law-protect/