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Sample Essay on Off-the-Books Job: Can Law Support Those Who Work Off-the-Record

November 17th, 2017 Comments off

books jobEach person requires a certain job to earn money. This is an actual necessity though this is not an obligation. Some people remain unemployed and don’t have any costs for life. Those who get education commonly find a job. However, we should talk about two kinds of jobs – official and unofficial. There are many employees who prefer or are forced to choose an off-the-books job. This kind of job has its pros and cons, and it is really vital to discuss them.

The official job has one huge benefit – you are protected by the state. You will receive all kinds of insurances, official salary, all possible bonuses, guaranteed vacation, and years of professional experience, which will be added to your pension when you retire. Of course, there are some disadvantages as well. You are forced to pay taxes, and you will have a fixed salary, which may not be high enough to satisfy your needs.

It is quite different for unreported employees. Their salary may be much higher. Why do employers pay more for the unofficial workers? The reason is the payment of taxes. They don’t have to pay for such workers and may afford to pay higher salaries. Additionally, your working hours are flexible, and you may choose when to work and which amount of work to execute. A good example of such an opportunity is the job of a freelancer. Nevertheless, one should consider some drawbacks too.

No official experience is one of them. As you aren’t officially employment, there will be no information about your working experience, which is a huge drawback in regard to the Pension Fund. Also, don’t forget about absences of social and medical security. Unreported employees will not have any insurance, such like social and medical ones. This is a big problem too. No compensation – one more thing to be thought about.  In the case of any accident or financial problem of the company where you work, you will not get any compensation. Irregular payments and work is also a popular inconvenience. You may be cheated by your employer. In this case, you will not be able to prove that you have been working for a particular period of time to be paid accordingly because you do not have any legal documents. Thus, you may work for weeks on without salary. Some people haven’t even heard of potential penalties from Internal Revenue Service (IRS). If the IRS finds that you are an off-the-book worker, the fault will be all yours. And the last but not the least important – no guarantees for the future. One day you may come to your working site and find out that you are fired without any money, compensations, and insurance.

This list clearly illustrates all possible negative consequences of the off-the-record job. You still may have some guarantees. You may ask your employer to sign an official document that you will receive at least the fixed income. Nevertheless, you will be deprived of many other essential conditions.

It is up to you whether to risk unofficial job or not. However, it is always better to be officially registered. Under such condition, you will be protected by the state and will avoid multiple troubles.


  1. David Lawrence Ganz (2008). Working “Off the Books”: What to Avoid.—a-guide-of-what-to-avoid
  2. Brian, Mittman (2011). Workers’ Compensation For Workers Paid Off The Books.
  3. Tom, Breedlove (2015). Being Paid “On the Books” Pays Off.
  4. The New York Times (2008). Immigration, Off the Books.
  5. Daniel, Levy (2017). I Was Hurt on the Job but Was Working “OFF THE BOOKS” Can I Get Workers’ Compensation?
  6. Le, Trinh (2015). How Much Trouble Are Under the Table Employees?
  7. (2017). The Employer’s Liability for Unreported Tips.
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9 Cunning Reasons That Make Some Students Commit a Crime

November 10th, 2017 Comments off

students commit crimes Being young is a very exciting time period in our life. You are so overly energetic, inspired, brave, funny, and full of beliefs that you are able to do anything you wish. This is an important period when we become adults, acquire experience, and begin to understand the main rules and tendencies. Unfortunately, this is the period of multiple misfortunes, disappointments, and mistakes.

One of the greatest mistakes that could be possibly done by any student is to commit a crime. This will become a big black spot in your biography, which may follow you until the rest of your days. That is why it is utterly important to avoid any sort of crime. There are many ways to do that. It is also significant to figure out the reasons that push students to violate the law.

Here are some common factors that lead to law violations:

  1. The increase of the income. Most students don’t have huge budgets. Thus, they are forced to save money and spend it on different things that are associated with their learning. However, they wish to get some finer things or various kinds of entertainment. Consequently, they undergo robberies, selling illegal products or something of the kind to enrich their pockets.
  2. The showing-off. Some students may commit a crime to show how cool and harsh they are. This is a very bright example of how our occupation may affect us. At times, youngsters commit crimes for the pure fun.
  3. Peer group pressure. Our environment is one of the determining factors of our behavior. In most cases, an individual gets under a strong influence of his/her peers and will do different things just to remain in the company. There is a high proportion of young people who are unsupervised by parents and state. Oftentimes, they become criminals.
  4. Parental criminality. Another reason derives from a criminal parent or both of them. Children commonly imitate the behavior of their parents.
  5. Family issues. Serious family conflicts, poor parental discipline, and supervision are other contributors to inappropriate behavior and growing up of children.
  6. Low family income. Multiple studies prove that children from families with low income are predisposed to become criminals.
  7. Social isolation. One should consider the alienation from society. Lonely people feel abandoned and don’t wish to follow any rules and restrictions.
  8. Drug or alcohol misuse. The use of forbidden and harmful substances is the enemy of any society and makes young people undertake criminal actions.
  9. Mental diseases. Some students suffer from different psychological ailments, which negatively affect their behavior.

Mind that this is not the full list. It describes only some common reasons. Nevertheless, there are much more of them.

At any rate, you should remember that your youth will not last forever. Therefore, spend it with pleasure and reason. Do not waste this marvelous time on fatal errors.

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The Great Choice: 8 Branches of Law You Are to Choose among Before Entering a College

November 2nd, 2017 Comments off

great choiceBefore you enter a college, you should make allowances for different aspects. It is necessary to choose the one, which can meet all your demands and expectations. However, the main thing each student should think about is the choice of the discipline. If you are going to enter the law college and receive the desired degree, you ought to be totally sure that it will suit you.

Mind that there are various law branches, and you should know each to make the correct choice. Here is the pickup of 8 perspective law directions. Have a look at some brief information about each and try to find the one that is suitable.

  • Admiralty law. If you are good at economics, you should choose this direction. It deals with economic transactions and all property disputes which are maritime by their nature. Mark that this is not a synonym to the Law of the Sea.
  • S. Bankruptcy law. This branch deals with the insolvency issue of private individuals and/or organizations. This is the domain of Federal law. If choosing this direction, you will become an expert in the U.S. Bankruptcy Code. It is considered to be of great importance and difficult to master.
  • Corporate law. This one has the direct association with the administration of corporations of various kinds. Such experts commonly deal with mergers, reorganization of corporations from within, various aspects of responsibility, compliance, and so on. Besides, you will deal with international accords.
  • Civil rights law. This is another important and interest direction. The attorneys will regulate the relations between the government and individuals or group of individuals. Thus, you might be busy with any sort of discriminations or cases, when the rights of citizens were infringed.
  • Criminal law. This branch is obvious. The lawyers will deal with different kinds of crime. There is a tremendous variety of aspects. All illegal behavior cases are related to the criminal law. You may become either a defender or a prosecutor.
  • Entertainment law. This branch has a slight relation to intellectual property issues. Nevertheless, in most cases, it resolves problems of media, cinema, music, art and/or athletics.
  • Environmental law. If you choose this direction, your practice will be based on federal, state and/or transitional laws. You will be a representative of various companies or individuals. Undoubtedly, you will be busy with the problems related to environmental violations. You will defend public health.
  • Intellectual Property law. You will be focused on the protection of rights of inventors and authors who have implemented new things in the spheres of science, arts, and so on.

This is a list of pretty common law directions. Nevertheless, these are only a few out of a great variety. You should consider other branches, which are associated with family, health, international affairs, and so on. The list is actually long.

Consider each type and make the correct choice to have the job you’ll like.

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Sample Essay on Discrimination: Kinds of Discrimination DOJ Does NOT Protect Us from

September 15th, 2017 Comments off

The issue of workplace discrimination has posed legal challenges ever since the days of the Civil Right Movement. Today, we still struggle with protecting individuals from unfair and discriminatory practices in the workplace. The article below can help you craft a strong essay on this complex topic.

Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was the crowning achievement of the Civil Rights Movement. Lawmakers and activists fought for years to extend protections to black people who were often targeted by hate groups and Jim Crow laws which made it impossible for them to advance in the workplace as their white peers could. This legislation made it illegal for employers to discriminate on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex or religion. Because of this legislation, employees cannot be fired because of their race or demoted because of their religious beliefs. However, there are some groups who don’t seem to fall within these protected classes: familial caregivers, military personnel, and gay or transgender individuals. In some cases, Title VII may be interpreted loosely to provide protection for these groups, or they may be protected by other legislation. But this is not always true.

Caregivers who are responsible for the needs of young children or sick spouses sometimes face discrimination in the workplace. A woman who is pregnant or the mother of young children may be passed over for a promotion in favor of men or child-free women who have the same qualifications. Employees may lose out on opportunities if they need to take time off to care for an aging parent. The Civil Rights Act does not explicitly offer protection for such situations. However, some people interpret such cases to be in the domain of gender discrimination. Individual states like Alaska and Connecticut have put laws in place to protect people from discrimination because of parenthood or familial obligations.

Another group that has faced discrimination in the workplace is military employees and veterans. In the past, if a worker was called up for active service in the military, they often found that their employers replaced them in their absence. They also faced challenges in getting hired or obtaining fair pay in the workplace. While Title VII does not provide protections for this group, the Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployment Rights Act (USERRA) was signed into law in 1994. This act protects the jobs of active military personnel and removes discriminatory barriers to reemployment.

Another group that does not explicitly fall under the protection of Title VII are members of the LGBT community. Gay, bisexual, and transgender people encounter discrimination in many forms, including in the workplace. Ever since 1975, legislators and activists have tried to extend Title VII protections to this group, but all attempts have failed. While some judges interpret sex discrimination broadly to include “sexual orientation,” this is open to interpretation and isn’t specifically stated. The vulnerability of this particular group has recently become evident with President Trump’s proposed ban on transgender individuals serving in the military.

The issue of workplace discrimination is complex, especially as our culture changes. Protecting a wide variety of people from discrimination in the workplace is not easy or simple. While the spirit of the Civil Rights Act remains in force, the letter of the law still leaves many groups unprotected.


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Sample Essay on Immigration to America: What Makes People Give up on Their Home

September 8th, 2017 Comments off

Immigration is a complex issue, which has been controversial ever since the Pilgrims first sailed to Plymouth Rock. Many of the motivations behind immigration to the US have remained the same throughout the centuries. This article can guide you as you craft an essay on this relevant and complex topic.

The history of immigration to the United States spans hundreds of years, yet most of the reasons for the mass exodus to America have remained constant: the search for greater economic opportunity, an escape from intolerable conditions in their own countries, and the desire for political and religious freedom. Sadly, many immigrants were forced to come to the United States as slaves or indentured servants.

During the earliest wave of immigration in the 1600s, many Europeans found that the price of passage to the United States was more than they could afford. These immigrants chose to barter their freedom in exchange for a one-way ticket to the US, and became indentured servants. They earned their freedom after a four-to-seven year term of labor. Unfortunately, thousands of people from West Africa were forcibly kidnapped and brought to the US as slaves, beginning as early as 1619 and continuing until after the Civil War. While we no longer chain other humans and force them to come to the US, the modern-day equivalent still exists in undocumented migrant workers forced to work without pay.

The draw of cheap or free land and independence of resources drew thousands of immigrants during the 1600s. The period of westward expansion in the 19th century opened up more opportunities for migrants from Ireland and Germany. The California gold rush drew in both Europeans and Asians. Today, many Asians still migrate to the US to pursue opportunities in fields like research, engineering, law, and medicine which are unavailable to them in their own countries.

During the 19th century, many Irish immigrants came to America to flee the devastation of the Irish Potato Famine, in which 1.5 million Irish people died. They were not the only ones who came to America to flee terrible situations in their home countries. Overcrowding and disease in many of the cities of Europe brought people of all nationalities to seek a new life in the US. Wars and pogroms in Mexico, Turkey, and Russia brought immigrants who needed the safe haven from violence and persecution. Today, the US offers a refuge to those fleeing violence or natural disasters.

Of course, the very first immigrants were the Pilgrims, who sailed to America from Britain in 1620 seeking religious and political freedom. This desire for freedom was echoed by a later wave of immigrants: intellectuals who migrated from Europe after the failed revolutions of 1848. Today, the US still provides asylum to people in other countries who are persecuted for their religious or political beliefs.

Although much has changed throughout the history of the USA, the reasons that people come here have remained fundamentally the same. Immigrants still seek freedom, refuge and, opportunity.


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9 Tricky Issues That Only Law Students Will Understand

August 29th, 2017 Comments off

Congratulations! You are pursuing your dream of attaining a law degree. But it’s not exactly what you expected. You knew that a law school was going to be hard, but you didn’t quite expect to encounter these common problems that only law students understand.

  1. Fun. What’s that? Remember when you thought that university would be the place for partying and making friends? Well, it is…for everyone except law students. Over and over again, you find that you are hitting the books while everyone else is having fun.
  2. You better love to read. Law students average about 50 pages of required reading every night. And it’s not light reading either! It’s crammed with legal terminology and Latin phrases. And we have to admit that reading about case studies, laws, and the exceptions to these laws is not exactly riveting. And sometimes, you just might not be able to finish it all…which brings us to our next point.
  3. If you haven’t read, you’d better get really good at pretending you know what you’re talking about. Court verdicts are nothing compared with the judgment awaiting law students who did not complete the required reading. You will acquire a special skill set for sounding incredibly knowledgeable when you don’t really know anything. This skill set will also be helpful in the next situation.
  4. You have to give your friends legal advice…even if you don’t know what you’re talking about. Whether it’s retrieving their possessions after a breakup or avoiding litigation after a fender bender, you will become the go-to source of legal information on every topic imaginable. So, if you don’t know the answer, just pretend that you do.
  5. You feel conflicted about advising friends who want to go to law school.  Every nerve within you will want to scream: “Don’t do it!” But as a good friend, you also need to encourage them in their dreams. Just share this list with them so they know exactly what they’re in for!
  6. You begin to rely on alcohol entirely too much. It seems that almost every meeting or social function is centered around drinking. Add to that the extreme stress and pressure of a law school, and your substance abuse counselor may become your best friend.
  7. You are motivated by an intense fear of failure. Remember when your sole motivation was your dream of becoming a successful lawyer? Your primary motivator now is your fear of getting humiliated by your professor and classmates.
  8.  You have to build an appropriate wardrobe on a tight budget. To make a good impression, you need just the right wardrobe, but as you are a student, your budget is limited. It doesn’t help that the dress code for aspiring lawyers is maddeningly vague.
  9. You’re just not cool anymore. Law students are notoriously weird so prepare to no longer be one of the cool kids. Even if you weren’t a nerd before, you definitely are one now.

But don’t let these problems discourage you. After all, at the end of the day, pursuing your dreams is all worth it.

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7 Law Schools That Will Come in Handy to Master Your Knowledge

August 22nd, 2017 Comments off

Are you considering attending law school but haven’t quite made up your mind? Or maybe you just want to brush up on some of the fine points of international legal systems. Here are eight great programs to spark your interest and grow your foundational knowledge.

  1. Yale English Language Institute’s Law Seminar Short Course. In just six weeks, you can acquire some detailed knowledge of the law in the US. This short course is perfect for students who consider attending an American law school, with an emphasis on the specific English language skills that you need to succeed in the profession.
  2. Trails of Evidence: How Forensic Science Works from The Great Courses. This is the perfect course for students who love crime shows or detective novels, exploring not only the actual process of solving a crime but also the fictional portrayal of crime throughout history. Let’s face it: there’s something about a crime that intrigues us. Here you can learn the true story behind the evaluation of evidence in solving a crime.
  3. Extended International Foundation Year in Business, Economics, Law and Social Sciences at the University of Surrey. This course is designed to prepare future law students in necessary study skills and language competence as well as knowledge of related fields like economics, business, and social sciences.
  4. Law Gap Year Programme (for ages 17-19) at Oxford Royale Academy. If you want to take a year off to consider whether or not the study of law is for you, this “Law Gap Year” is perfect. You can enhance your understanding of the legal field through coursework and research, building a solid foundation for the future studies.
  5. An Introduction to American Law at Case Western Reserve University. Do you want to make a real difference in the world? This course will give you the inside information you need to work towards the world peace. Learn the ins and outs of international criminal law from experts, including the challenges around world issues like genocide, piracy, and terrorism.
  6. Children’s Human Rights – an Interdisciplinary Introduction at the University of Geneva. Do you desire a deep understanding of the intricacies of human rights? Start with the rights of the most innocent and helpless – children. What are the specific challenges in the international promotion of children’s rights? What strategies have worked? And who are the key players in ensuring the rights of children all over the world? Learn about all these issues in detail with the help of this program.
  7. International Law in Action: A Guide to the International Courts and Tribunals in The Hague at the University of Leiden.  Learn about all the ins and outs of international law in the location where it all takes place: The Hague. Here you will learn about international courts and tribunals and their role in addressing contemporary problems. The course also features interviews with lawyers and judges who are directly involved with the administration of global justice.

With all these options, you are to find the program that’s just right for you. Good luck!

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Sample Essay on Human Equality: Why Someone Should Work Harder

August 6th, 2017 Comments off

human-equalityEven in countries which do not legally discriminate against one particular group of people, it’s still possible to identify examples of inequality. In the United States, for instance, men are generally more likely to earn higher salaries than women, seemingly benefiting from their gender in the realm of career advancement. To understand why this occurs, it’s necessary to investigate the issue further.

According to a recent study, although American men and women express an equal desire to advance in the workplace, women are 15% less likely than men to get promoted. Although some people may assume that becoming a mother would reduce a woman’s desire to earn a promotion, the study found that women with children are actually more likely to work towards a promotion than women who aren’t mothers.

Other data can shed light on this discrepancy. Studies indicate that men generally feel confident in their ability to move up within a company or an organization. Women, when they have initially joined the workforce, still believe that earning a promotion to an executive role is a difficult process with many challenges along the way. This attitude, rooted in genuine concerns, may impact the degree to which a woman pursues career advancement. If a man feels confident about getting a promotion, he’ll make his desire known to upper management. A woman of equal qualifications, who believes that her gender will restrict her ability to advance, may be reluctant to pursue a new position aggressively.

A comprehensive study by Harvard Business School also helps to illustrate why women are passed over for promotions more frequently than men. Many people who thrive on their careers benefit from having a mentor who offers them advice. According to the study’s findings, however, there’s a clear difference between how mentors treat women and how they treat men.

Men typically receive a moderate amount of advice from their mentor. More importantly, with male employees, mentors are more likely to use their position to help an employee network with the right people. Women, on the other hand, receive too much advice from their mentors, possibly because they are viewed to be less qualified than their male counterparts. Unfortunately, mentors don’t usually exercise their influence to help women earn promotions. They supply an abundance of advice, but they don’t actually recommend them for any positions, depriving them of one of the key benefits a mentor can provide an employee.

In fact, many women involved in the study report that they have to challenge their mentor when trying to move up in an organization, whereas men generally don’t face this struggle. The mentor isn’t likely to accept that a woman is prepared for her new role.

Clearly, there is an equality gap, even if it isn’t legally-sanctioned. In the business world, women may have to work harder than their male counterparts to get noticed. In the meantime, it’s also important for companies and organizations to be aware of these disparities, so they can address them in the future.


  • Bartz, C. (2014). Why Women Should Do Less & Network More. Fortune Online
  • Belanger, L. (2015). Making the Case for Women’s Career Development. Fast Company
  • Brescoll, V. (2013). Study: Men Seeking Career Advancement Are Favored for Flextime. Yale Insights
  • Hartmann, H. (2016). Women Need Equal Opportunities for Job Advancement. New York Times
  • Ibarra, H. (2010). Why Men Still Get More Promotions Than Women. Harvard Business Review Online
  • Lebowitz, S. (2015). A new study from Lean In and McKinsey finds exactly how much more likely men are to get promoted than women. Business Insider
  • Waller, M. (2016). How Men & Women See the Workplace Differently. Wall Street Journal
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Sample Compare and Contrast Essay on Democracy and Dictatorship

August 4th, 2017 Comments off

democracy-and-dictatorshipThere are several systems of government that we can face in the nowadays world. In this article, we will get to know how to structure a compare and contrast essay, comparing dictatorship and democracy, as the most renowned systems of government.

Although there are clear differences between democracy and dictatorship on paper, recent global history has illustrated them in very clear terms. To grasp the essential differences between these two forms of government, it’s important to study the philosophical differences as well as the differences that become apparent when observing actual countries that implement these forms of government.

Essentially, a democracy is a form of government in which citizens elect representatives to govern. Technically, people don’t have the power to create, repeal, or enforce laws, but they do choose the individuals who will have that power on their behalf. Some countries are direct democracies, in which each vote is equal, and others implement voting models that weigh votes differently based on key factors like geography.

In a dictatorship, most or all of the political power is consolidated so that one individual governs the people. Dictatorships often arise after historically tumultuous periods, in which a charismatic ruler gains power via revolution or appeals to the masses.

It’s easy to identify the drawbacks of a dictatorship. When one individual has the power to govern, they can make and enforce laws that suit their own ideology, and not the ideology of the people they claim to represent. However, some people claim that allowing one person to rule ensures that government runs more smoothly and efficiently. They claim that it’s difficult to accomplish anything if the people have too much influence, simply because not all citizens of the nation agree on basic political issues. Others also point out that leaders can manipulate uneducated voters in a democracy, essentially installing a dictatorship that could not be questioned on legal grounds.

Although democracies are common throughout the world, the United States may be the most familiar example. In recent history, the fascist leadership of Adolf Hitler represents the worst consequences of a dictatorship.

It’s impossible to argue that the United States has been free of political tumult. When citizens of a geographically large country are allowed to participate in the political process, there will be significant differences of opinion that can result in a cumbersome government.

On the other hand, recent dictatorships indicate that the type of personality which is attracted to that much power is also unlikely to wield it scrupulously. Dictators often use their position to marginalize or exterminate certain ethnic groups, promote agendas which favor some citizens over others and engage in acts of aggression against other nations that don’t have the approval of the citizenry. As a result, even citizens who aren’t specifically targeted by a dictator can suffer if they’re drafted into a war they do not support. More importantly, because dictators do not earn their power through legitimate popular support, there is almost always a backlash against them. Many citizens feel that the government does not represent their interests.

At a basic, philosophical level, the differences between a democracy and dictatorship are obvious. It’s important to not merely study these differences from a theoretical perspective, though. In order to truly understand the impact they have on citizens of a country, one must study them in practice.


  • BBC Staff. (2011). Democracy and Dictatorship: Key Differences. BBC
  • Cheibub, J. (2010). Democracy and dictatorship revisited. Public Choice, Vol. 143, 67-101.
  • Heichel, J. (2014). Democracy Vs. Dictatorship: Political Opposites. Udemy
  • Kunal, S. (2017). Democracy Versus Dictatorship? The Political Determinants of Growth Episodes. Harvard Kennedy School
  • Pande, A. (2010). Dictatorship vs. Democracy. The Huffington Post
  • Schiffbauer, M. (2010). Democracy vs. dictatorship: Comparing the evolution of economic growth under two political regimes. Economics of Transition, Vol. 18, 59-90.
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Sample Essay on Ambiguity: Why Some Laws Contradict Each Other

August 2nd, 2017 Comments off

sample-essay-on-ambiguityWe can face a lot of laws that contradict each other. In this sample essay, we are going to have a look at the contradictory laws in the USA

In an ideal world, all laws would be consistent. However, this is not always the case. In some instances, laws contradict one another. Often, this happens in America when states legalize activities before the federal government does.

For example, consider marijuana laws. In some American states, it’s now legal to own and use marijuana recreationally. The federal government continues to outlaw recreational marijuana usage. Another example regards the difficulty of interpreting immigration laws, which are constantly shifting in the United States depending on political influence.

Maria Teresa Fuentes understands the consequences of this. Although she crossed the American border illegally, she filed paperwork to become a citizen, citing a law which states that illegal immigrants may be granted citizenship if they marry a legal citizen. Unfortunately, Fuentes had previously been deported from the country. Another law states that an individual who has been deported must wait for, at least, 10 years in their home country before they can begin the process of immigrating to the country legally.

There are obvious contradictions between the two laws when applied to this case. Fuentes made an attempt to earn her citizenship via legal means, adhering to the law as she understood it. Because she had been deported once before, her case was unique. In cases like this, interpretation is left to the discretion of a district attorney or judge. Sometimes these cases prompt amendments to laws, but usually, officials make a decision based on their own personal understanding of the statute.

Developments in technology can also result in contradictory laws, especially at the local municipal level. Examples of this are common in the telecommunications industry. In order to facilitate a strong cell service in a given area, providers must either erect new antenna towers or place their towers on existing tall structures. Frequently, they choose to place their antennas on apartment buildings. However, local codes may prohibit commercial, industrial, or similar facilities or developments in that particular zone. Back when the law was originally written, the local government could not have anticipated mobile phone technology.

In these cases, the proper interpretation of the code’s language is essential. Some residents of an apartment building might cite the law in order to prevent the company from installing antennas on their roof. The wireless provider must hire a skilled lawyer who can present an alternate interpretation of the language which would allow for such installations. They can generally make the argument that a wireless antenna installation does not match the definition of a commercial installation at the time the code was written.

For law students, it’s especially important to understand that there are laws on the books which seem to contradict one another. Depending on the nature of the contradiction, the laws may be amended, a judge or district attorney may be responsible for interpreting them, or a corporate lawyer may have to make their case to the local government. The law isn’t always as consistent as many would like, and it’s likely to only become more complex in the future, not less.


  • Bunn, T. (2013). Contradictory Laws. University of Richmond
  • Duant, L. (2014). State vs. Federal Law: Who Really Holds the Trump Card? The Huffington Post
  • Fernandez, V. (2011). Contradictory Immigration Laws Leave Families in Legal Limbo. New American Media
  • Grossman, A. (2014). Banks to be Allowed to do Business With Marijuana Dispensaries. Wall Street Journal
  • New York Times Staff. (2017). Understanding Transgender Access Laws. The New York Times
  • Sreenivasan, H. (2013). The Connection: Contradictory Marijuana Laws.
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