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Essay on the Positive Law and Economics

August 28th, 2015 Comments off

person writingThe term ‘positivism’ is used in the area to describe a range of universal specific methods that are exclusive to various disciplines. The so-called positivism in the segments of law and economics isn’t the same. What is more, its fundamental assumptions are completely different.  We make sure to use the words ‘positive’ and ‘positivism’ in order to discuss the nature of law or a special method to study this law.  Talking about the positive law means to describe the society legal rules just the way they are established, rather than we may think they are supposed to be. At the same time, legal positivism is also about the studying of the law of society that is scientific to some extent.

Legal positivism tends to be related to a set of theories that law comprises a range of rules that are generated by the sovereign, rather than from one of the higher places. For instance, a legal positivist is absolutely sure that law should be separated from what we call morals. However, some of the legal positivists make certain to treat moral statements as some special social conventions that may one day turn into the legal rules. The positivist, who is engaged in studying the society law, will most likely find it extremely important to study the society morals as well. However, he/she will deal with this study not in a normative, but in a scientific way.

Economists tend to make use of the term ‘positive’ in order to discuss economic analysis not as normative, but descriptive. According to the positive economic analysis, when there are some premises, A, B, some conclusion C will definitely pop up. For instance, a positive economic analysis proposition may be the following: ‘In case domestic manufacturing appears to be uncompetitive, certain quotas on overseas imports will result in higher prices.’

When the matter concerns positivism in law and economics, it is necessary to say that positive economic analysis of law always tends to identify a legal rule and later provides some descriptive statements regarding the possible economic effects of that very legal rule. For instance, the statement ‘predatory pricing anti-trust law forces some of the leading organizations to set inadequately high prices’ is related to the positivism in both segments – law and economics. First of all, one should distinguish the legal set of rules against the greedy pricing, a typical exercise in legal positivism methodology. Next step in such case is to identify the effect of the legal rules mentioned above on the organization’s incentive, as well as the follow-on effects on the locative efficiency, the economic positivism methodology application. This mixture of economic and law positivism can be also traced in the economic analysis of legal institutions like juridical opinion, legislative process, courts, as well as the rules of the civil procedure. In this case, the positivism law and economics researcher exert every effort to identify the range of institutional constraints regarding the legal making of the rules, as well as to generate an economic theory that gives an explanation for the effects of such constraints.

How to Write a Good Research Proposal for a Law Paper

August 27th, 2015 Comments off

data entryOnce you’re at the research proposal writing stage, it’s good to keep in mind that the process requires the author to be familiar with the methodology of research as well as legal method course. The research proposal for the law paper should be submitted to the university supervisors within the set deadline – make sure to meet one.

First thing to remember is that the law research proposal must include not more than 2500 words. But this number does not include bibliography and footnotes. The cover page must include the title, name, registration, completion year, word count, supervisor’s name and the date.

As soon as you have the topic of the research proposal, allow yourself enough time to identify the specific problem that you will be researching though stating an overall question. The topic could be the broad segment of law, but make sure to choose the one that is related to the area you like best.

As for the proposal structure, there is no guidance regarding the format of proposal, as well as how its content should look like. Typically, it’s the supervisor that decides in what order the Research Methodology and theoretical part should be placed.

A law paper proposal may include either background or intro, or both. This will depend on your supervisor’s way of thinking. But the typical thing about this part is that it sets out a broad, but hooking start to the area of research being performed. As a rule, it is not long, but it includes catchy information that presents your topic to the readers. For example, the intro of the research proposal of the law paper may look like this: ‘Article 51 of the United Nations Charter reveals that an armed attack originally comes from the other American state. However, the state practice proved that there were special cases, when the attacks were justified by the states on the territory of the other in the name of self-defence, when this very attack was caused by a non-state actor. It is necessary to mention that customary and treaty international law recognize the right of the state to take some measures to stop the danger that has been posed to the citizens and the state.’

The law paper research proposal requires you to state the problem you work on. It usually includes a concise matter that has arisen in a certain context and consequently must be properly investigated and the right solution recommended at the end. To cut the story, what you are about to research is what you have to describe in this part.  Take a look at the following example: ‘The problem that comes up lies in whether the self-defence right should be exercised legally in the event of the armed attack that happened against the American state by a non-state actor. That is, the problem is whether the American state should be responsible for the international law on regard to the armed attacks by the non-state actor working form its own region and thus become the object of the retaliatory attack by the victim territory in exercise of the self-defense right.’

It is recommended to limit your research proposal to a single legal question. The following questions may serve as an example for your own project: What do we call ‘the armed attack’? Does the Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations consider an attack by the non-state actors as the armed attack? Does the attack made by the non-state actors relate to the armed attack? Make sure to choose one of the alternative research questions or work out your own.

How to Write a Law Dissertation Proposal

August 14th, 2015 Comments off

law dissertationThe key purpose of the proposal is to provide the representatives of the admissions team with an opportunity to check the potential originality and feasibility of the research. Besides, the project is usually being accomplished to make sure that every successful applicant is assigned with an appropriate supervisor. Typically, the length of the law dissertation proposal is between 1500 and 2000 words. We strongly advise you to consider our simple guidance while working on the law dissertation proposal project.

Working on an introduction for the law dissertation proposal? Make sure to set out your key reasons for engaging with this very kind of study. All the ideas should be set into the academic / theoretical context. Describe the purpose and nature of the research, outline the problem and indicate the goals you’re willing to achieve.

The primary focus of the project is typically explained within the aims and objectives section. What is the difference between the aims and objectives? When the question is about the aim of the dissertation proposal, remember – you deal with some sort of aspiration or intention. Besides, aims are based on what you are hoping to achieve at the end of the project. As for the object, it is all about the step that you make in order to meet your aim. To cut the story, the object of the law dissertation proposal is all about how you achieve your aims.

When writing the methodology of your dissertation, make certain to explain what methods you used in the process of research and development of your proposal. It is highly required to explain what methods you’ve used in order to gather information. However, it is not allowed to include questionnaires and interviews since these elements should be provided in the appendices of the dissertation.

The other part of the law dissertation proposal is the literature survey that usually uses a descriptive writing approach. Within this section the author of the law dissertation proposal can demonstrate how he’s filling the perceived gap in the theory of knowledge that already exists. What is more, you are also free to purpose something that is controversial or goes against the ideas that exist nowadays.

And lastly, it comes down to the constraints of your research. You, as the author of the law dissertation proposal, will have to include them into the project. A lot of topics usually have broad links to various issues that are more complex. Thus, by clearly explaining the research constraints, you will have a chance to demonstrate your thorough acknowledgement and solid understanding of these larger issues, as well as the role they play by focusing the research exclusively on one part or the section of the subject.

Mind the references. The list of references should be included at the end of the law dissertation proposal project and demonstrate how deep your research is. It also acknowledges your information sources and protects you from possible charge of plagiarism.

Common Law Essay Topics

August 14th, 2015 Comments off

law schoolIt can be a pretty tiresome job coming up with a fresh topic for the law essay. Typically, a lot of research is integrated into writing an idea and the number one rule is to keep it as specific as you can. In case you are in need of help with finding the right topic for your law essay, consider the ones that are described in the article below.

Legalization of Abortions

Abortion, as well as its legalization, is the topic that is always disputed about. Abortion is a really hard decision for every female, but the ladies have been making it for centuries already. Make sure to dedicate your essay to the very old topic, but highlight from an exclusively new angle.

Same-Sex Marriages

The other hot topic that people are still arguing about all over the globe, in all possible walks of life – the relationship between gay individuals. What is your viewpoint on a particular issue? Give your reasons why (or why not?) the same-sex relationships should be legalized.

Legal Drinking Age

Seems like it’s been much said about this particular problem, but you will definitely have something to add. Nowadays, the rates of drunk driving will more than likely not increase, in case the legal drinking age is not lowered. The point is that lowering the drinking age may cause the increase of the drunk driving amount, as well as add to the rate of car accidents. Share your views on the issues.

Prostitution Legalization

Why should or shouldn’t prostitution be legal? What is your personal opinion on the world’s most ancient profession? While some people state that the most ancient job should be protected by the law, the others argue with it. Without a doubt, trading sex for money has been in our everyday lives for a long period of time and has been widely practiced by Romans, Greeks and China civilizations. But the question is – are we supposed to live with it or, probably, it’s time to put an end to the business?

Euthanasia: to Do or Not to Do?

The “good death” is one of the matters that people are arguing about all over the world. In the modern societies euthanasia is considered the process of taking away the life of a human being, who’s suffering from a disease that cannot be cured. The process is usually painless and that is why a lot of people give their preference to it in order to help the ones they love to stop suffering from unbearable pain. At the same time, a great number of countries on the globe are against the “good death” and any type of it. Make sure to discuss the legalization of euthanasia in your country, and why it should or shouldn’t be protected by the state law.  In case you have real life examples of the situation, when your family member or a friend decided to turn to the option of euthanasia due to the painful illness, include it into your project.

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Essay on Legal Ramifications of Littering

August 14th, 2015 Comments off

people litteringBefore we proceed to the legal ramifications of littering, let us make it clear regarding what littering is. Litter is a sort of rubbish that has been improperly disposed, at wrong location and usually without any consent. In other words, littering is about throwing away various objects on to the ground instead of putting them into the recycling or garbage bin. In general, any kind of waste from factories, private houses or industries must be placed either in the waste to energy plant or in the recycling bin. All the other cases are simply illegal. Although the fines may vary from state to state, as well as by county and by city, people will definitely be charged in case they are caught littering.

Among the ramifications that are caused by littering, it is important to point out that litter can become the cause of serious accidents. All that is required for the accident to happen is just some trash thrown on the road. Whether it’s because some driver accidently drives his Mercedes over some wooden crate on the road or some other person swerves his Toyota in order to avoid the trash, a car accident can be caused by littering on the road. And car accidents, as we all know, cause severe injuries and even deaths.

The wildlife suffers greatly from the littering, experts say. Animals may simply get trapped or even poisoned with a variety of litter. The filters or butts from cigarettes are pretty dangerous for the world of wild creatures. What is more, they have been found in the stomachs of whales, fish and birds, who have thought that it was just a kind of food. In addition, the fluffy ones can get serious discomfort and trapped in the rubbish. For instance, the plastic that we usually make use of in order to hold beverage cans together can simply get wrapped around the necks of the animals and cause the suffocation. And finally, animals can be harmed by broken glass found here and there in a grass.

Illegally dumped rubbish can pollute the air we breathe, leach into water we drink and contaminate soil. The most hazardous in this group are the tires that can smolder for a long period of time when burned. Nowadays, thirty eight states in the US have relevant laws that ban the deposition of the whole tires in landfills.

Undoubtedly, litter can be quite hazardous. Discarded goods, sharps waste as well as pathogens caused by litter can become the number one cause of accidental harm to people.

As for the economy segment, litter carries pretty extensive cost to the area. For instance, when the question is about the United States of America, the litter cleaning usually costs hundreds of dollars for one ton that is almost ten times more than the trash disposal cost. If you really want it to stop, set a good example yourself. Stop littering now and make sure to encourage your family and friends do the same. A really good food for thought, don’t you think?

Research Paper on Legal Consequences of Plagiarism

July 8th, 2015 Comments off

thief illustrationWhen the question is about the plagiarism consequences, they can be professional, personal, legal and ethical. When assigned with the task to complete a research paper about the consequences of plagiarism, make sure to focus on each type of plagiarism within the body of the project.

When working on the introductive section, remember that it should not exceed two pages. The purpose of this segment of the paper is to inform your readers on the rationale behind the project, with the intention to later expand on it. Thus, your reader will have an opportunity to understand as well as appreciate all of your objectives.

This is the time, when you’re supposed to be working on the body of the research paper. Begin your research paper with the statement that plagiarists can include not only students, but also experienced professionals, academics, journalists, authors and many others. However, with the special plagiarism detection systems that are nowadays available for free use, all plagiarists can be caught at an alarming rate.

Start investigating the consequences of plagiarism, one after another. The very first legal consequence of plagiarism is destroyed student’s reputation. Once the student is accused of plagiarism, he can be suspended or even expelled. Plagiarism allegations can probably cause the student to switch from one college to the other. The thing is that colleges, high schools and the other educational establishments are very strict when the question related to plagiarism. A lot of schools make sure to suspend students for the very first violation.

Make sure to mention that not only student’s reputation, but also the name of a business person can be blackened. A public figure may face with the fact that plagiarism will be there in his or her career for good. Include the possible consequences for the representatives of business area. These may be getting fired from the present position as well as problems with finding a new respectable job.

The other type or legal consequences of plagiarism are related to the completely destroyed academic reputation.  Once the academic career is scarred with any kind of plagiarism allegations, it may be ruined. Taking into account that publishing is an integral part of a successful academic career, make sure to search for the famous persons who have lost the ability to publish due to the plagiarism allegations.

The other chapter of the research paper on the topic should include legal percussions of plagiarism. They can be pretty serious. Make sure to state that people are not allowed to use another person’s written material without proper reference or citation. Search for the related laws to support your statements.

A highly egregious type of plagiarism that should be mentioned within the paper is the plagiarized research. In case the research is performed within the medical area, the plagiarism consequences can mean the loss of lives of the others.

Before you write the research paper about the plagiarism consequences, make sure to learn about plagiarism itself. Find out what exactly constitutes plagiarism and how to avoid it.

Corruption Essay Sample: Corruption – One of the Wicked Sins

June 30th, 2015 Comments off

There’s no doubt that nowadays corruption is one of the most undesirable sins that is here and there like a silent monster waiting for mere mortals. This is what the majority of people consider to be God of modern society. It is not an exaggeration to say that corruption has not only led to the poor law, but also caused such unpleasant things like poverty and general society disability. In other words, all the values related to morality have been destroyed by this evil power. But what is even worse – corruption is still growing every single day in huge proportions and there is no sphere in politics, economics or society that is free from it. It seems like it is an integral part of an everyday life and simply inseparable…

Under every stone we pick up, behind every closed door – corruption can be seen everywhere. Thus, it is a shame that we accept and for some unknown reason deny thinking that it’s a part of our selves already.

It’s not a secret that human beings’ souls are full of various temptations. That’s our nature, after all. And in fact, cash and shiny gold is a sort of a bait for all those officials and politicians, who can’t imagine their everyday lives without bribes any way. They are simply in need of something in order to get rid of that itching on the hands. However, the stink lies in the very hypocrisy that usually accompanies it.

There’s nothing more disheartening than when an absolutely corrupted individual is talking about high moral standards after taking a huge bribe and is trying to make people live in accordance with the ideologies and principles of Jesus Christ, and always remain honest. However, all the politicians, ministers and officials do exactly the same. They have a solid belief that it’s how our life is arranged and their routine is simply impossible without the incurable disease called ‘corruption’.

It’s so sad that just like some evil character from the book, corruption is getting into every aspect of our life. There are more and more greed addicts that exert every effort in order to push humanity into a decadence era. Every member of our society nowadays – be it a judiciary individual or a government representative – all are longing for personal profits.

Only energetic youth can be that huge power that can actually destroy the corruption. It has enough will and strength to attach with full force the government that is feeding this ‘tumor’. Without a doubt, it is the right time to bring the positive reforms out, so that every society member not only dream but also does his best in order to develop the world that is not only a good place to live but also absolutely free from corruption.

Police Brutality Essay: Is It Possible to Fight Police Brutality?

June 30th, 2015 Comments off

Recently there have been a great number of controversies regarding the cops who happened to be involved in dirty cases related to killing innocent Afro Americans or teenagers. Here and there – everywhere on the globe one can see how brutally the representatives of the law interact with the members of the society and how unfair it is that more often than not they remain unpunished. How to fight police brutality? Is there any chance to stand against the injustice? There is.

Do not hesitate to protest

City halls, police stations and all the other venues of the government should be marched on also protested against every time there is a case related to the brutality of the policemen.

 Recording the police is a must-to-do

The individuals must use their cameras every time the policemen harass them to them in the act. After that one may make use of the web and various media in order to expose these actions all over the globe. What we need to do is to fallow the police with a camera and record their actions. Due to the fact that the cameras are really cheap now, everyone can afford buying them, which means it is a lot easier to hold the policemen accountable for what they dare doing.

Vote out the representatives of the government who do not mind policemen brutality

Every politician, who condones police brutality, should be immediately vote out of his position. His office is not the place, where he should wear out his pair of pants. This is where he should focus on documenting police brutality. People must have a strong voice in their own country and make use of that voice to handle the problems in every community.

Interacting with police is crucial

It is highly recommended to use moderate police organizations in order to engage in dialogue with police to avoid brutality. The groups that focus on these activities have already done a lot to fight police brutality. And we all must collaborate with them as an intermediary to handle various community issues related to police.

We should take legal actions against brutal policemen

We have the right to take legal actions against police. The best way to fight the brutality of the policemen is only through hitting them directly in the pocket. The point is that if the policemen go on getting sued for their brutal actions again and again, they will be finally forced to face with the issue. That is why it is highly important to report every incident related to the police brutality to the media or the representatives of the government.

To come to the point, we all pay taxes and it means that we add it up to the police salaries. And what it comes down to is that policemen must serve the community, protect it and meet its demands. And as for us, it is not enough to get angry at policemen. We must take a step from anger to actions in order to stop all the cruelty in the future.

How to Write a Case Study on Intellectual Property

June 30th, 2015 Comments off

intellectual propertyThere are many types of case studies. Moreover, there are also many different uses for writing the case studies, from stating the corporate proof points to the purposes of academic research. As for the intellectual property, it usually refers to the various mind creations, such as inventions, designs, artistic and literary works, etc. There are up to four types of case studies: cumulative that is related to the collective information comparisons; illustrative that is about the events descriptions; critical that is about examining a particular subject with the cause and effect outcomes; exploratory type. Before you finally get to the writing process, make certain to define what kind of case study you’re going to work on. Thereafter, you will have several steps to make to deliver the case study on intellectual property.

When you’re done with the angle of the case study research, determine the project study. What will your research be about? What have you discussed in the class? Choose a specific problem in the intellectual property field. Are you writing about the types of intellectual property? Narrow down your topic to a more specific one, such as industrial design, geographical indications and many others.

Look for the case studies that have been created on the same topic. Approach your college tutors, visit local library, search on the web till you find what you’re in need of. In other words, make sure your case study does not appear as the replacement for the research that has been already performed. For instance, if you decide to focus your case study on the intellectual property rights, ensure to concentrate your research on a particular geographical region.

Provide the summary or brief intro to the project with an emphasis on the problem. This section will enlighten your reader on the reasons why he/she should dig further into the case study.

You would be surprised to know that there is a so-called once-upon-a-time section in the case study. That’s what they call a “backstory”. In this part you, as the leader of the project, provide an intro to the case study key players – your client and yourself – as well as all the respective viewpoints. When doing that, keep in mind that how you describe this relationship will make it faster and simpler for the readers to imagine themselves in the same relationship with you.

When the question is about the case study problem, this is actually the easiest part. Describe the case problem you would like to solve. For instance, suppose you interviewed a writer and he told you he thought more individuals should be concerned about an intellectual property in electronic world, and he cannot understand why they do not care. This may be the stage for the case study.

Are you ready for the solution part? Tell your readers what you did. This is when one can show his/her strategic prowess, as well as the technical capabilities and your style.

And as you’re getting closer to the outcome of the case study, take your time to ponder over the results. What were they? Have you succeed in building a new audience? Have you managed to inform the community about the particular aspects of intellectual property? Excellent! Now, data, please.

Legalization of Same-Sex Marriages Essay

June 30th, 2015 Comments off

gay marriageWhile a lot of people nowadays tend to shout here and there about the importance of the same sex marriages legalization, it is highly important to stop for a moment and ask ourselves – should the same-sex couples be provided with an opportunity to get married?

There are two basic reasons why legal responsibilities, rights and benefits of a civil marriage shouldn’t be extended to the gay couples.  First of all, these people cannot get married since the relationship they have cannot be called “marriage”. In other words, they don’t fit into what we call the minimum required condition for a typical marriage to exist – i.e. the union of a woman and a man.  And the second point is related to the fact that these relationships are of a harmful nature. What is more, they bring more negative consequences to the society. So, what are the key reasons why the legalization of same-sex marriages should be put off for good?

Same-Sex Marriages Violate the Law of Nature

When we talk about the marriage, the matter does not relate to the relationship between people only. It’s the relationship that is governed by the natural law.  The latter is applied to every human being. According to Saint Paul in Rom. 2:14-15, “the natural law is inscribed on the heart of every man”.

Gay Marriage Creates a Sterile Union

Individuals, who are engaged in same-sex marriages, prevent the birth of children since they compose a so-called “sterile” union. In case one of the partners wants to have a child, he or she should employ a surrogate mother. The natural tendency of this kind of relationship isn’t to “give birth” to new families. Thus, we cannot call it a true marriage as well as give it the benefits of traditional family.

Gay Relationships Offend God

This is probably the most significant reasons above all mentioned above. When a human being violates the moral order of life that was created by almighty God, he or she offends our Creator. Same-sex unions do that. In other words, any person, who loves God, must be against the gay relationships.

Marriage was created for Eve and Adam by God in paradise. The Book of Genesis says the following: “G?d cre?ted m?n in His im?ge; in the Divine im?ge he cre?ted him; m?le and fem?le He cre?ted them. G?d bl?ssed them, s?ying: ‘Be fertile and multiply; fill the e?rth and subdu? it.’” (Gen. 1:28-29)

And finally, the legalization of same-sex marriages imposes its acceptance on the whole community. With the new order and law peculiarities, the public schools are required to teach the acceptance of the gay relationship to kids, while the official establishments will have to punish anyone, who turns to be against it. In any situation, the legalization of same-sex marriages will affect society, which means a lot of people will have to betray their consciences and beliefs and will be faced with the necessity to act against the natural law.