custom term papers

Sample Essay on Lawsuits as the Next Frontier of Environmental Change

April 19th, 2016 Comments off

sample essay on lawsuits as the next frontier of environmental change

Climate change is more often discussed not as an abstract threat but a real issue. Extreme weather events like hurricanes and typhoons, floods, wildfires, habitat change, industry stress and diseases break out in new areas. In 2010 material damage caused by climate change has been estimated to $591 billion. The experts inform that the number will increase in the coming years. Such significant costs cause the issue of liability and compensation.

Companies responsible for large-scale greenhouse gases emanation might be responsible for material damage associated with climate change. This idea  is not new. A few lawsuits claiming compensation for climate change damages have been led in the United States. These cases have encountered some problems, however, climate damages litigations attract more and more attention.

The experts assume that lawsuits will be brought in home countries of greenhouse gas emitters. Still, climate change is a global problem since emissions originate in every country and their effects are spread all over the world.

This raises the possibility of transnational litigation involving a victim suing greenhouse gas emitters in his or her own country, even if the emitters originate from other countries. Transnational litigation implies interrelated and complex questions about jurisdiction, choice of law, recognition and enforcement.

The courts of the country where an illegal act took place have jurisdiction over indemnity for the harm. In the case of climate change, it should not be admitted that the illegal act took place in the country of the emitter, as the emissions caused damages together with global emissions. Climate damages claims should be brought in countries where the harm is done.

After asserting jurisdiction, it is necessary to regard which country’s laws should be applied. It is logical to suppose that the court applies the laws of its country. However, in transnational litigation, foreign laws might be practised. In many countries the law of the location where the illegal act took place is applied. Still, concerning climate damages, there is a real question as to where the illegal act took place.

Greenhouse gas emitters might presume that damage decree pronounced by courts in countries where they have no assets are quite safe. In many countries, however, if a court in a foreign jurisdiction pronounces damage decree, the legal decision is acknowledged as a debt and is recovered. Concerning the other aspects, whether and how this occurs depends on the laws of the country. Still, such possibility has serious implications for greenhouse gas emitters in developed countries, since it might expose them to lawsuits anywhere all over the world.

Climate damages lawsuits have a global potential. Litigations can be brought in different countries, then enforced in other countries where greenhouse gas emitters have their assets. As a result, such companies experience significant financial and legal risks.

Climate change is increasingly causing serious damage around the world leading to requests for compensation. These requests will be addressed through climate damages litigations. Major greenhouse gas emitters and their shareholders can avoid such risk by reducing their emanations, which requires rejection of fossil fuels, as well as concluding new international agreements about compensation demands, climate liability and emanation reductions in extensive ways.


  1. David Hunter and James Salzman. Negligence in the Air: The Duty of Care in Climate Change Litigation. 155 U. Pennsylvania Law Review 1741, 2007
  2. Jim Hansen. The Threat to the Planet. The New York Review 12, July 13, 2006.
  3. Fankhauser, S. A Practitioner’s Guide to a Low-Carbon Economy: Lessons from the UK. Climate Policy, 13(3), 2013.
  4. Gary Bryner, The Rapid Evolution of Climate Change Law 20. Utah Bar Journal 22, March/April 2007.
  5. Mary Christina Wood. Atmospheric Trust Litigation. 2007
  6. Nachmany M., Fankhauser, S., Townshend, T., Collins, M., Landesman, T., Matthews, A., Pavese, C., Rietig, K., Schleifer, P., Setzer, J. The GLOBE Climate Legislation Study – A Review of Climate Change Legislation in 66 Countries. London: GLOBE International and the Grantham Research Institute, London School of Economics, 2014.
  7. Townshend, T., Fankhauser, S., Matthews, A., Feger, C., Liu, J., and Narciso, T. Legislating Climate Change at the National Level. Environment, 53(5), 2011.

10 Criminology Topics for Your Essay on Law

April 19th, 2016 Comments off

10 criminology topics for your essay on lawCriminology handles nature, causes, control and consequences of criminal behavior. Today the necessity of this science is extremely important, while the level of crime is rising immensely all over the world. For many scientists the explanation of human behavior has become a top priority.

A wealthy socio-historical experience of the mankind in the past affords a good opportunity for appropriate comprehension of modern criminology and the issues solved by this branch of knowledge. This science had different factors that made an impact on its development providing enough information for a better comprehension of criminology and its opportunities.

Before starting to write a criminology essay, a writer should ensure first that he or she understands the question of the assignment. A good criminology essay addresses its question throughout. At the same time it demonstrates a structured answer. Key phrases enable a writer to understand how he or she should develop the answer’s construction. For example, if the concept of penal welfare should be described, an account of the concept should be provided. If the concept of penal welfare should be criticized, strengths and weaknesses of the concept should be assessed, and a value judgement should be performed.

When a student has to write a research paper on criminology, he or she needs to find a topic that is relevant. Here are ideas about appropriate criminology essay topics to discuss.

  1. Cyberterrorism in the US. Cyberterrorism includes a range of malevolent computer-based activity. Some experts claim, a set of standards for securing databases and networks must be set up. Such standards must be accepted by organizations, individuals and government.
  1. Female Domestic Violence Offenders. Female domestic violence offenders are usually disregarded in theory and research. In fact females fall victim to the high incidence of domestic violence crime.
  1. The Ponzi Scheme: New Successors. Charles Ponzi created his infamous scheme a hundred years ago. However, this method of using incoming investments to pay the old investors is still alive. Today money lost from Ponzi schemes in the US is as high as from shoplifting.
  1. Human Trafficking in the USA. Human trafficking may seem like a distant problem to US citizens, while few can hear about it on TV. But recent cases of human trafficking in Maryland and northern Virginia provide an alarm signal.
  1. The Global Weapons Epidemic. The number of skirmishes in the United States is increasing every year. Should the government put more restrictions on gun use and ownership?
  1. The Issue of Underground Child Labor in Cuba. In spite of the fact that child labor is prohibited in most countries, lots of kids work hard in difficult conditions.
  1. The Phenomenon of Torture. In the modern world torture is a prevailing human rights crime. It is practiced in one hundred countries, including the US.
  1. Abuse and Fraud in Nonprofit Organizations. The most famous fraud schemes performed against nonprofit organizations and how such schemes could be detected and prevented.
  1. The Music Industry’s War on Piracy. Is music property? Is downloading music a crime? What penalties for unauthorized borrowing are used by the musicians?
  1. Benefits and Costs of Preventing Crime. What are the cost savings from preventing a robbery, burglary, or assault? Who benefits from such savings?

Above are just a few of many criminology essay topics. Remember that it’s better to choose a topic that is relevant and interesting. Make sure you can collect enough information on the topic to do a solid research. You are going to show a thesis statement to the reader and prove why you believe your statement.

How to Write a Legal Memorandum: The Complete Guide

April 19th, 2016 Comments off

how to write a legal memorandum  the complete guideThe purpose of a legal memorandum is to explore a juridical issue and give an impartial assessment on that issue. It is used to develop approaches and to announce arguments. This document explains a particular field of law, analyses given fact model and gives recommendations about a course of action on the basis of the analysis.

Each legal issue has its own specifications, therefore an essential part of knowing how to write a legal memorandum is minding, every one of them is organised in a distinct way. It’s not a good idea to blindly follow a sample memorandum. The writer should focus on learning the document’s general components and structure instead, apply them to his or her research work in the most effective way for the specific problem.

A legal memorandum is a strictly structured type of writing, which follows definite conventions. It consists of certain standard elements, which are described below.


The heading identifies its author and the memorandum’s recipient. It also includes date, subject essence and client identification as well.

Summary of the Facts

This portion lists facts which are relevant to the subject. Those are the facts which the author has relied upon while researching and preparing the document. If assumptions have been made, they should be indicated. The facts should be stated clearly and objectively in chronological order. Definitions must be listed to standardise nomenclature for things and persons that are referred to in the legal memorandum. This prevents confusion and inconsistency.

Brief Identification of the Juridical Issues

This section is crucial. The author should briefly define accurate legal issues within the context of the case’s facts. Legal elements, which are necessary to resolution of the issues, should be included. To be more effective the issue statement should be as descriptive and narrow as possible. If there are a few issues to be addressed, they should be listed in the order they will be discussed.

Discussion of the Law Relevant to the Issues

This is the heart of the legal memorandum. In this part a venue is provided for interpreting and analysing the law as well as applying the law to the facts. This section should be divided into separate parts for each specific legal issue displayed in the memorandum. Each part should include introduction, explanation of the corresponding juridical rule, adaptation of the rule to the juridical problem, and conclusion.


The law can be uncertain, which makes it hard to create a defensible conclusion. However, the purpose of the legal memorandum is to give a legible answer, so the author cannot simply claim that the law is unclear. He or she should find a practical solution to avoid such uncertainty. The author should remember that the recipient does not want to be kept in suspense. Therefore a clear, definite and responsive answer should be provided in this portion as soon as possible.

A student should think like a lawyer in order to learn how to write a legal memorandum. Hence, he or she should pay attention to details and separate his or her personal emotions from legal baselines. Research of the corresponding law is essential.

Sample Essay on the Case of O. J. Simpson

April 19th, 2016 Comments off

sample essay on the case of o. j. simpson caseOrenthal James Simpson was a football player in 1970s. Playing for Buffalo Bills and San Francisco 49ers he won the Heisman Trophy in 1968 and became one of the greatest running backs in NFL history. He still holds the record for the most single-season rushing yards per game. After retiring from football in 1979 Simpson started acting career and remained a public figure. Besides, he was a sports commentator on NBC.

In 1985 Simpson married his second wife, Nicole Brown. The pair had two children. In 1989 their marriage hit a rock, when Simpson was condemned to community service and probation after he was accused of spousal abuse. Three years after his wife filed for divorce.

On June 13, 1994 Nicole Simpson and her friend were found stabbed to death. Nicole had multiple wounds in the head and neck. The bodies were found outside of her home in Los Angeles. She was 35 years old, he was 25.

After interrogation Simpson was ordered to turn himself in to the police on June 17. The police got an all-points bulletin after he had failed to surrender himself. The same day Simpson’s lawyer, Robert Kardashian, read for the media his suicide note. In that note Simpson asked “to think of the real O.J. and not that lost person”. In the evening the former football player was arrested. The police found a fake moustache, makeup adhesive and a gun in his car.

On October 3, 1995, about 150 million people witnessed the televised verdict of the O. J. Simpson trial. For more than a year, the former football player’s case stunned the nation and prevailed in the public imagination. After an eight-month trial jury found the celebrity not guilty.

The prosecutors had incontestable DNA evidence against Simpson, such as victims’ blood traces in his vehicle and Nicole’s blood on his socks. However, the defence had technical mistakes made by the forensics team and claimed that the crime scene was contaminated casting doubt on the DNA evidence. Furthermore they used a video with Mark Fuhrman, a policeman who helped to collect the physical evidence. On that video Fuhrman made multiple racist remarks. The policeman was later accused of perjury.

At the crime scene a dark glove was found. Later the second one was recovered at Simpson’s apartment. The prosecution found DNA from the victims and from Simpson on both gloves. However, the lawyers asked him to try on those gloves which appeared to be too small for his hands. “If it doesn’t fit, you must acquit.” pronounced the lawyer Johnnie Cochran. This phrase became legendary. Prosecutors asserted that the gloves had been soaked in blood and later frozen and unfrozen a few times to be preserved.

The “Trial of the Century” ended with acquittal of Simpson. In 2008 the jury found him guilty of 10 charges, including armed robbery and kidnapping. That case had nothing to do with the murder of his ex-wife and her friend. The former NFL star was condemned to 33 years in prison.


  1. Cotterill, Janet. Language and Power in Court: A Linguistic Analysis of the O. J. Simpson Trial. Basingstoke, England: Palgrave, 2002.
  2. Dear, William C. O.J. Is Guilty But Not of Murder. Dear Overseas Production, 2000.
  3. Dershowitz, Alan M. Reasonable Doubts: The Criminal Justice System and the O.J. Simpson Case. New York: Touchstone Books, 1997.
  4. Felman, Shoshana. The Juridical Unconscious: Trials and Traumas in the Twentieth Century. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2002.
  5. Goldberg, Hank M. The Prosecution Responds: An O. J. Simpson Trial Prosecutor Reveals What Really Happened. Secaucus, New Jersey: Carol Publishing Group, 1996.
  6. Linedecker, Clifford L. O. J. A to Z: The Complete Handbook to the Trial of the Century. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1995.
  7. Toobin, Jeffrey. The Run of His Life: The People v. O. J. Simpson. Touchstone Books, 1997.

Sample Essay on Surveillance in the UK

March 23rd, 2016 Comments off

Surveillance Law

The UK intelligence agencies are about to get new spying powers that are intended to keep the World Wide Web from being used for crime. But the whole point about the surveillance law is that it may fundamentally change the life of regular internet users, who use technology as well.

British Conservative Party politician, Theresa May, has brought light to the new powers that will help the country to fight against pedophiles and terrorists on the internet. Even though the intentions of May seem to be good, there are some weak points in the politician’s spying ideas. In particular, those powers have special requirements that internet companies are obliged to meet. All of them must keep customers’ information, to track whether or not they have some ties to organized crime.

As stated by the members of the Intelligence and Security Committee of Parliament, the spying law proposed by the UK politician takes away all the privacy protection, also it gives local intelligence agencies unreasonably wide spectrum of rights to access personal information. The Committee is one of just several bodies that scrutinized May’s suggestions regarding cyber control.

Among the concerns caused by the surveillance law are the bulk of hacking powers that authorities are provided with, particularly the right to tap directly into the smartphone and the rest of the similar gadgets. Moreover, the major concern expressed by the critics is that the authorities will have the right to access individuals’ phone data that wouldn’t pose any danger.

In other words, the UK authorities will enjoy the access to everything that your PC or smartphone does. Although Theresa May keeps insisting that the surveillance law is nothing, but “the modern equivalent of the so-called itemized phone bill”, it will actually provide more details than that. For instance, British authorities will be provided with the whole list of social web sites and communications applications that are being used by the person. The authorities will be always aware of anyone using Facebook, however, they won’t know the details of the online chats.

Another requirement of the UK surveillance law is that each of the providers of the communications services will have to keep the browsing information for not less than a year. The experts are not ready yet to talk about what form it all will take and what other protections will be applied.

Communications service providers that will be forced to keep the browsing data have told that the law may damage their business with costs to keep users’ information, as well as by requiring them to help the authorities hack their systems.

A range of the UK companies, such as TalkTalk, Google, BT Group Plc and Facebook Incorporation, have expressed their concerns as well, pointing at the law potential to undermine users’ trust and to allow the authorities to invade customers’ privacy.

As for the smartphones, the conversations via devices have been secret to everyone, including the law enforcement. From now on, the Wilson Doctrine will be reversed completely, while the spy agencies will easily access the conversations between the politicians and their constituents.

Will this be helpful in combating cyber terrorism? Time will show. But at the moment, doubts regarding the communication safely passing over the internet are already assailing the regular users.



James Ball, Julian Borger and Glenn Greenwald, ‘Revealed: how US and UK spy agencies defeat internet privacy and security’, The Guardian (6 September 2013),

Home Affairs Committee – Seventeenth Report, Counter-terrorism, 30 April 2014, paragraph 163.

How the NSA’s MUSCULAR program collects too much data from Yahoo and Google’, Washington Post (30 October 2013).

Nick Hopkins and Julian Borger, ‘Exclusive: NSA pays £100m in secret funding for GCHQ’, The Guardian (1 August 2013).

United Nations General Assembly, Sixty-eighth sessions, Third Committee, Agenda item 69(b).

Sir David Omand, ‘Enhancing surveillance transparency: A UK policy framework’, Big Brother Watch, (April 2014).

Ofcom, The Communications Market 2013: Internet,

Writing in Criminology: Why is Quality Important

March 23rd, 2016 Comments off

why is quality important

If your dream career is focused on the area of criminology and criminal justice, apart from being highly interested in human nature and objectively analyzing evidence, you should have excellent writing skills. No matter what your specific criminology field is, written communication is among the most required skills. The use of written language can be traced everywhere: criminologists issue proposals, produce reports and written records on the findings. Here are a few good points regarding why criminology students must enhance their writing skills in order to be more effective in their future career:

  • First Impression Matters

A poorly produced report will demonstrate your inability to cope with the work and low level of intelligence. Moreover, it will leave someone with a bad impression of your dedication. In other words, a poorly completed report on the case will prove the absence of your interest in taking the time to do a good report.

Unwanted Consequences

In case with the criminology materials, a poorly organized and written report can mean the difference between a murderer going free and being put into jail. As a rule, all arrest documents are being declined by the district and state attorneys due to the errors or in case the documents look like written by a four year old kid. Don’t give anyone a chance to question your professionalism, work on your writing skills!

  • Effective Communication Is Vital to Success

Writing skills of high level are crucial to reaching the goal of voluntary compliance with the law. As future criminology workers, students have to already learn how to articulate their reasoning and actions to the public to maintain their support once they’re in the criminal justice world. The point is that the very first resource the media outlets tend to look at when an incident occurs is the reports generated by the police. Without knowing how to effectively highlight the details of the case you won’t be able to present your research and findings in order to persuade the others.

  • Ability to Avoid the Court Attend

A report that includes all aspects of the case and has a cohesive structure does not only demonstrate your ability to professionally communicate in a written form. In addition to that, it actually helps you to avoid having to attend the court. If there are no errors or misunderstandings in the report, and it leaves no space for questions in general, the counsel may not call the officer into the court. 

  • An Open Door to the Writing Career in Criminal Justice

It seems like people have always been hooked to the areas like crime and punishment. That is why writing about the experiences in the criminal justice world is a perfect gateway for the students who would like to boost their writing skills on a particular matter.    

To sum up, in every instance of the criminology, the ability to professionally write is one of the vital skills. In order to get the desired position, you need to start enhancing your written language long before you graduate.

Sample Essay on the Problem of Firearms Law in the U.S.

March 14th, 2016 Comments off

weaponsThe debates over firearms control in the United States have been a matter to analyze for years already, usually stirred by a range of incidents involving mass killings by gunmen in small towns and megalopolises. Twenty children killed by a psycho or a church shooting by a lunatic. It seems like gun control is all over the news and every single day brings us a new sentiment for new firearms restrictions.

There’s one absolute truth: gun control has nothing to do with the murder rates. Removing guns from the society doesn’t usually lead to massive mayhem. That’s the point that everyone used to argue about. Poverty is the matter that has far greater correlation to the mass killings and crime in general than the unrestricted guns. This in its turn is directly linked to education. To cut the story, the society in the USA doesn’t have the so-called gun problem but it certainly has leakages in the cultural segment. Guns do not kill people. It’s people who kill people. Those critics, who come against the gun control law, bring up the times before society had access to guns. People had boulders and bows, spears and arrows that were used to take somebody else’s life. When faced with the firearms limitations, we would simply go back to using those mentioned above. Thus, there’s no difference whether the firearms are banned or not. The other issue is that guns give the US people an opportunity to protect themselves from those, who want to take away their lives for any reason. But the point is that taking the firearms away won’t help, the potential enemies will always find a way to hurt.

The society in the US tends to pander to its basic instincts, such as violence. Instead of talking to each other, we prefer watching the wall-mounted TV that depicts someone being tortured to death. People are desensitized to violence, while having no coping skills required to face the reality.

In the 1993, when the gun control law was amended by the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act, 57% of Americans were sure that gun ownership control was more crucial than the rights protection. However, in 2012 it dropped to 47%, while the number of the US citizens, who prioritized gun rights over gun control, went up to 46%. The same story happened in Canada and the UK. The first one promulgated 1995 Firearms Act that required gun licensing, while Britain introduced the Firearms Act in 1987. But the fact is that the gun laws in both countries remain in the center of debates, since a great number of firearms remains within the country.

To conclude with, even Obama’s new executive actions on firearms control expressed at the beginning of 2016 won’t change the society. None of the restrictions would have stopped any tragedy with mass shootings in the US, and none of them will prevent broader use of guns in any sort of aggressive activates. Human nature is more powerful than any restrictions.


Limiting Tort Liability of Gun Manufacturers and Gun Sellers: Legal Analysis of P.L. 109-92 (2005), by Henry Cohen.
Firearms Prohibitions and Domestic Violence Convictions: The Lautenberg Amendment, by T. J. Halstead.
Gun Control: Statutory Disclosure Limitations on ATF Firearms Trace Data and Multiple Handgun Sales Reports, by William J. Krouse.
Firearm Ownership and Violent Crime in the U.S.: An Ecological Study by Monuteaux, Lee, Hemenway, Mannix, Fleegler.
Gun Trafficking and the Southwest Border, by Vivian S. Chu and William J. Krouse.
Crime, Deterrence and the Right-to-Carry Concealed Handguns, Journal of Legal Studies, by Lott, J. and D. Mustard, 1-68.
More guns, more crime, Forthcoming by Duggan, Mark, Journal of Political Economy (2001).

How to Write a Case Brief Properly

March 14th, 2016 Comments off

writing on a paperBefore writing a case brief, make sure you know the actual definition of the matter. In simple language, a case brief is the legal decision summary created in a written form. The summary outlines the issues, facts, history, reasoning and outcome of this or that case.

Case briefs tend to be helpful in many ways. In particular, they help to point out the most crucial aspects of the case, which means the process of the information synthesizing is getting easier this way. Besides, it’s a great tool to outline basic legal principles that have been set in the case and to put cases in the context with any relevant materials learned in a course.


Ensure to provide the complete citation for the case, including the case name, the date it was decided, as well as the name of the court that decided it.


In this section the author is required to overview the key facts of the case. Make sure to name all related actions, individuals, objects and locations involved in the case. Mind that only the material facts should be mentioned. In other words, include the information that is REALLY important to the outcome. When outlining the case facts, ensure to exclude anything irrelevant.


The majority of cases you may stumble across in law school will tend to appellate court decisions. This section is provided for you to have a chance to mention all the aspects of what happened in the lower courts. But do not give too much information on it. Just two or three simple sentences will be enough for this part.


In this section one is required to outline the most crucial legal questions that the court has been approached to decide. Make sure to write the legal issues in the question form in order to sum up what legal questions are being addressed by a particular case. Experts recommend writing the questions in the format of yes and no.


What was the answer of the court on the issue? Was it yes or no?


If the question is about the most important part of the case brief, reasoning is the answer. Here is the part you should use to list the reasoning of the majority in making this or that decision. In this section of the project, you have an opportunity to be as detailed as you want to. Make sure to list what the law was like before a particular case was decided. Also, ensure to talk about how the law has changed once the decision was made. The point is that law excerpts are especially passionate about discussing the reasoning of this or that case in the hot class debates.

Concurring Opinions / Reasoning

Name the reasoning of every concurrence. Do they differ anyhow in their proposed rule?

A careful and detailed case brief is your tool to demonstrate your knowledge, as well as the ability to analyze the cases thoroughly and draw accurate conclusions.

Sample Essay: Too Easy to Become a Lawyer?

January 27th, 2016 Comments off

lawyerLaw is an incredibly interesting subject and if you have already made a decision to settle into the life of a law student, make sure you know very well what you’re signing up for. Whilst we all have probably heard about how challenging the academic life in law schools is, whether from the movies, pals or family members, the most recent researches bring light to a particularly new trend. Some of the experts suggest that getting into the law classes is easier nowadays than it’s been before. There are a lot of stories out there from the humble ones to the most unreal.

Fewer Students Apply to the Law Schools

Experts inform that nowadays the number of students, who enter law schools, is rapidly declining. As shown by the representatives of the University of Saint Thomas School of Law, in 2014 the number of students, who matriculated law educational establishments, was the smallest since 1987. Besides, it was mentioned that there was a 7% decline from 2013.

In 2015 law schools keep getting less hooking for the school graduates, with educational establishments receiving 6.7% less applications than they did last year, as was reported by the Law School Admission Council. What is more, the number of students, who are going to apply for the legal education, has also dropped, by 4.7%, experts report. In case the pace keeps going as it did in 2014, the number of young people, who applied to the law educational establishments for the Fall of 2015 semester will most likely hit the lowest level possible.

Passing Bar Is Too Low

As the number of students, who make decision to go to the law schools, drops day by day, law educational establishments tend to compete for the young people with low undergraduate grades. In other words, these schools are ready to accept students the other schools would never touch and so it gets too easy to become a lawyer. The lucky students are provided with an opportunity to enter classes they’ve been dreaming about, but they’re not able to pass the bar exam. So, the question is – are these law schools ready to what will happen then? In order to handle the new sad reality, the representatives of the law schools have arrived at a range of innovative tactics that will attract more students to their classrooms.

Although everything mentioned above can make you think it’s almost too easy to become a lawyer and immediately rush to the local law school to submit your application, it’s better for you to get more information regarding how the things actually go. A lot of individuals, who are young, naive and full of surrealistic expectations should be aware of the fact that being a law school student is demanding and challenging. Sky high prices of law books, rapid decline in the number of training contracts among the firms and corporations, a lot of reading – all these points and many others make the prospect of becoming a law school student less dreamy and desirable.

Sample Essay on Monkeys with Human Rights: a Reality?

January 27th, 2016 Comments off

monkeys in wildAnother unique event happened in the US history. According to the verdict of a judge, a pair of chimpanzees kept currently at the research facility of Stony Brook University is covered by the same range of laws as the Americans. A judge has decreed that Hercules and Leo are rendered as legal “people” when it comes to law.

The New York City Supreme Court Judge Barbara Jaffe stated that the animals kept for scientific research purposes are covered by a basic law principle called “the writ of habeas corpus”. The latter is known to enable humans to challenge the validity of their detention. But the fact is that a couple of hours later, the Supreme Court judge amended her court order to eliminate habeas corpus decision. Basically, that reversed the decision she made earlier.

The non-decision mentioned above appeared right after the animal rights group called Nonhuman Rights that made a legal case in order to set four animals free. The representatives of the group claimed that Leo and Hercules, as well as two other chimpanzees were being imprisoned illegally and had to be taken to the sanctuary straight away. In 2013 the cases were finally dismissed by the three lower court judges. However, the members of the Nonhuman Rights Project appealed and succeeded in convincing Barbara Jaffe that chimpanzees were intelligent enough to provide them with what is called basic human rights on a temporary basis.

Barbara Jaffe ordered the representative of the Stony Brook to come to the court in order to reply to the petition of the Nonhuman Rights Project that claimed the animals were kept illegally. Law professor at California’s Pepperdine University Richard Cupp told that the decision made by the judged was first of all caused by the desire to listen to both sides of the case before making any suggestions regarding the chimps and their status.

But the executive director of the Nonhuman Rights Project Natalie Prosin said once the original decision was made that regardless of whether the two animals are afforded lawful personhood after hearing, the organization is going to make use of the ruling of the judge in the future as well.

Natalie Prosin stated that her colleagues have a range of scientific evidence required to prove during the hearing that great apes, dolphins, elephants and whales are the so-called autonomous creatures that must be also be provided with the right to bodily liberty. Prosin also claims that together with people who share the same viewpoints, they will prove “these non-human animals aren’t property.”

According to the experts of the Science, the judge who stated that Hercules and Leo were covered by the writ of habeas corpus made a decision to amend her court order to step away from that statement. The story with two chimps has been constantly updated, and the next hearing will finally determine whether the animals are being kept illegally.


  1. Dickens Charles, Bleak House, New York 1977 (cit. Dickens, Bleak House).
  2. Hobbes Thomas, Leviathan, in: Curley Edwin (Ed.), Indianapolis 1994 (cit. Hobbes, Leviathan).
  3. Hume David, Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals, in: Selby-Bigge L. A./Nidditch P. H. (Ed.), Enquiries Concerning Human Understanding and Concerning the Principles of Morals, 3rd edition, Oxford 1975 (cit. Hume, Second Enquiry).
  4. Cass R. Sunstein, The Rights of Animals: A Very Short Primer (August 2002).
  5. Animal Welfare: A Cool Eye Towards Eden By: John Webster Publisher: Blackwell Science (UK) ISBN: 0632039280.
  6. Encyclopaedia of Animal Rights and Animal Welfare By: M. Beckoff Publisher: Greenwood Press ISBN: 0313299773.
  7. Through Our Eyes Only? By: M. S. Dawkins Publisher: Oxford University Press ISBN: 0198503202