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Panama Archives Offshore Leak Essay Sample

June 29th, 2016 Comments off

Panama Offshore Leak Essay Sample

It’s on the 3rd of April, 2016 when astounding and shocking news had suddenly shaken the world. A firm, based in Panama, known as “Mossack Fonsec” had the biggest information leak ever dated in history. The Panamanian law firm, famous for selling offshore shell companies, practicing corruption and shady business got exposed  to the entire world. Having the offices all over the globe, selling shell companies took place mostly in Zurich, London, and Hong Kong, providing “absolute confidentiality” to both a client and customer.

But despite the years of existence and successful clandestine business schemes the disaster was inevitable. Among the records there was classified information on mafia group leaders, criminals, tycoons, billionaires, entertainers, athletes, drug barons, socialites and others. More than 200 politicians were also mentioned on  Panama Papers leak list, proving the fact that the firm assisted the officials in tax evasion, sanctions machinations and money laundry procedures.

More than 11.5 million papers and information on more than 12 current and former leaders, including Saudi Arabia’s King Salman, pro-Western President of Ukraine Petro Poroshenko, Russian President Vladimir Putin and other Russian officials, Pakistan and Iceland leaders prove the large scale of the leak. Taking into consideration all the names on the list, one thing is certain, such business is not legal and what is more, the revealed names of the people on the list will have to bear responsibility as set forth by laws.

The entity responsible for the information leak asked to remain anonymous and the information disclosure was published by the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists (ICIJ) in a German newspaper, called “Süddeutsche Zeitung, it was also issued in BBC newspaper a year later. More than 2.6 terabytes of data information, dated from 1977 to 2015 shows that Panamanian firm worked with more than 14,000 bank facilities, law firms, company entrepreneurs and other businessmen to set up clandestine companies, infrastructures and trusts for potential customers.

“Panama documents” or “Panama archives” are the records that were found during the investigation on the offshore business conducted by people with ties to the President of Russian Federation Vladimir Putin. Sergei Roldugin, a close friend of Vladimir Putin is in the center of the leak scoop. According to the records, hundreds millions dollars were sent from Cyprus “daughter” VTB bank to RCB Bank. There were also numerous money transactions connected to “Gazprom” and “Rosneft” shares. More than 2 billion dollars were sent through shell banks belonging to Putin’s associates. Still, there are a lot of companies, the true owners of which remain unknown and not found.

To sum up, Panama leak amounts to more documents than the combined total of Lux Leaks, Wikileaks Cablegate, Swiss Leaks and Offshore Leaks due to the great number of various e-mails, photo files, pdf files and its scale.


  1. Rash, W. (2016). Panama Papers Breach Reveals Astonishingly Lax Network Security. [online] Available at: [Accessed 23 May 2016].
  2. ICIJ, (2016). The Panama Papers: An Introduction. [online] ICIJ. Available at: [Accessed 21 May 2016].
  3. ICIJ 2, (2016). Stairway to Tax Heaven. [online] Available at: [Accessed 21 May 2016].
  4. Ronderos, M. and Lipstas, A. (2016). The Investigative Journalism Collaboration That Produced the Panama Papers. [online] Open Society Foundations. Available at: [Accessed 21 May 2016].
  5. Sambrook, R. (2016). Panama Papers: the nuts and bolts of a massive international investigation. [online] Available at: [Accessed 21 May 2016].
  6. Yong, W. (2016). Perspective: Panama Papers and ‘responsible’ journalism. [online] Available at: [Accessed 21 May 2016].
  7. Krieger, M. and Dad, T. (2016). Are Corporate Gatekeepers Protecting Western Elites from the Leaked Panama Papers?. [online] Liberty Blitzkrieg. Available at: [Accessed 25 Apr. 2016].

Writing a Will That Is Legally Sound

June 29th, 2016 Comments off

 Legally Sound

It’s better sooner than later but better later than never. A will is a document that comes into action after you pass away. It may sound sad, but yes, we will all die sometime. And there is nothing more unpleasant than dying and leaving your beloved ones without your final word and testament. The will can be written by you (will maker), your lawyer or by a will writing service.

Compiling a testament proves not only your understanding and readiness to die, but also your preparation and studious planning for it. Below you can find a guidance on how to write a will before leaving this world.

Put Down Executors

Carefully choose the people you trust your financial course of events. Unpaid debts, mortgages and other financial issues are to be taken care of by them. It has to be a trusted and reliable friend or a relative or any close person of yours. Executors will also make sure that whatever was written in your will is carried out.

Make It Legal

Make sure that the will is dated and signed. After completing it double-check that it is signed by you and by two witnesses. If you want to make it more legal and binding you can have it signed by a notary. Good news is that it’s not obligatory, it’s optional.

Store It Right

Writing a will is one thing, but it’s very important to have it kept and stored in a safe place afterwards. Putting it in a hidden place that nobody knows or simply throwing it in your shoe box is not a good idea. Make sure that your trusted person will be able to find it along with important documents, passwords and valuables. The best idea is to put it in your safe.

Pick Guardians

The most difficult part is to choose the people responsible for your children when you decease – guardians for your kids and their property. Be very careful with putting down the names in your will. Spelling is very important and any mistake may be fatal.

Will Is Never Enough

There’s always a place for emotions, humour and sentiments in our life. If you also have some sentimental speech to say you can attach a letter with it to the will. Some letters may be addressed to the guardians, witnesses, kids, spouse or even your enemies. They will show your hopes, express your desires and simply show your gratitude and express love.

Even knowing how to write a will, it’s not an easy thing to do, but as soon as you start doing it, it will help you understand who you trust, value and rely on in life.

Essay Sample: What Is Embargo?

June 29th, 2016 Comments off

What Is Embargo

Good trade relationships with all nations, ability to buy and sell products not just within domestic territory, but to other countries as well is pivotal to the successful and prosperous economy in the country. But what if such abilities become limited, or, what is worse, banned one day? Moreover, such sanctions can be placed legally and doing so is a prerogative of every nation. This is when embargo is set.

Embargo is a regulation adopted by the government that restrains the commerce or any trading exchange process with a stated country. It influences the economy of the affected country in a disrupting way and leads to negative consequences. Such policy decision may be adapted due to hostile political relations or economic circumstances that appeared between the two or more countries.

Imposing sanctions and embargos is made so that to change the behavior of the targeted country in a better way that will lead to better relationships and improve the economic and political situation in the future. Putting the embargo makes the targeted country feel isolated and it causes a lot of financial and economic issues.

All embargo sanctions are viewed as targeted ones. Bans can be placed either on countries, groups, organizations, government institutions or specific individuals. Embargo measures can be of a different kind. Some embargos are aimed at security and order preservation, for example ban on arms import and export in order to prevent terrorist attacks. Sanctions can be also put on specific industrial field, like a ban on oil stock or other related products.

Other bans and sanctions may be applied according to specific circumstances. The most common ones are embargos on ammunition, weapons or military supplying equipment. Another frequent one is the embargo on terrorist groups or anyone associated or involved with those groups, their entry to the country is forbidden and their bank accounts in that country may be frozen. It is often put during mass terrorist attacks, security threat times or riots. Named individuals, mostly politicians can be also banned to enter some countries. It can be also forbidden to travel to a targeted country for specified period of time or even indefinitely. it is known as a travel embargo.

Former trade embargoes were put in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Vietnam, the Republic of Macedonia, Libya, India, Mali, Pakistan, Serbia, Georgia and Italy. Some of sanctions were adopted because of mass killings of rebels during the riots, some to restrict nuclear exports, some to prevent the import of agricultural products, wine, mineral water.

There are some countries that are under the embargo for the time being, such as arms embargo in China by EU; Sudan by the US; financial operations, shipping, missile and military export embargo in Iran by US; luxury goods and arms in North Korea by EU; consumer goods in Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus by UN; money, consumer goods and arms in Cuba by the USA; shipment of animals in Japan after serious earthquake, live cattle export in Indonesia by Australia; Gaza Strip by Israel; oil and arms imports in Syria by US.

To sum up, the embargo process is conducted for  sanitary reasons. However, the consequences may be devastating and non compliance with the required sanctions is considered to be a criminal offence and may lead to more destructive relationships.


  1. Shambaugh, G. (2016). embargo | international law. [online] Encyclopedia Britannica. Available at: [Accessed 11 Jan. 2016].
  2. (2015). Economic sanctions. [online] Available at: [Accessed 21 Nov. 2015].
  3. Elmerraji, J. (2010). Countries Sanctioned By The U.S. – And Why. [online] Investopedia. Available at:—and-why.aspx [Accessed 21 Nov. 2015].
  4. (2015). Export Controlled or Embargoed Countries, Entities and Persons | DoResearch. [online] Available at: [Accessed 21 Nov. 2015].
  5. org. (2015). The Adverse Consequences of Economic Sanctions. [online] Available at: [Accessed 21 Nov. 2015].
  6. GIUMELLI, F. (2015). Understanding United Nations targeted sanctions: an empirical analysis. International Affairs, 91(6), pp.1351-1368.
  7. Booman, M. (2014). The Effectiveness and Ethics of Economic Sanctions. [online] Seven Pillars Institute. Available at: [Accessed 7 May 2016].

Legal Contract Writing Guide

June 29th, 2016 Comments off

Writing Guide

Entering business sphere requires constant negotiations and contract writing knowledge. It is the best and safest way to protect your personal interests that ensures safety. Legal contract writing helps legal entities, institutions and business people to avoid disagreements and disputes of different types as well. It is advised to provide the written summary after each session of negotiations to close a deal by the means of a signed legal document which we are going to discuss in our guide on how to write a contract.

Legal contract is a binding agreement between two or more entities with specific terms, responsible parties, conditions and requirements indicated in it. Grammatically correct contract with clearly clarified obligations and conditions of each party guarantees transparency and total comprehension for future cooperation. Apart from knowing the terms and conditions of a legal contract it’s very important to be able to compile the contract in a right way using appropriate language, notions and keeping up to the corresponding norms. Taking into account the tips mentioned below will help you to more clearly understand this process and compose decent legal writing.

Use Appropriate Language

Good legal writing consists of the formal language use, specific terminology, grammatically correct phrases and no contractions. Using plain and legalese language at the same time is far from possible, but at least is worth trying.

Make a Draft

Making a draft is not a sign of inability or disconfidence, it’s a sign of good preparation and studious work. The more drafts were made and modified the better chances of excellent final version writing you may have.

Organize the Text

Logical organization of information and good writing structure are very important. Introduction, main body and termination will help to better navigate through the contract points. Number and label each paragraph to emphasize the topic of the paragraph and bullet points.

Provide All the Needed Details

Provide as much needed details as required. You need to arrange the information which is relevant and to be taken into account by signing parties. It is necessary to set requirements, rights and obligations. The key to success is presenting clarifying conditions, contract termination, payment terms and future provisions.

Outline the Boundaries

Breach terms are also very important in case of failure to comply with the agreement. If any party breaks the contract or refuses to perform the required points, further actions and what to do next must be indicated.

Signify the Responsibilities

Legal contract countersigning is the final stage and the proof that both sides clearly understand and accept all the requirements in the stated provisions. Well understood requirements can guarantee a successful mutual cooperation.

All in all, almost all commerce bargains, business transactions and relationships are coordinated by legal contracts, whether it’s buying a cell phone or a bag of beans. It doesn’t necessarily mean that all contracts go in a written form, some of them can be in a verbal form, but it’s always better to have everything that was agreed – written. To conclude with the most important advice on how to write a contract is that every legal document has to be clear, precise, concise and comply with the legal writing norms.

Guantanamo Bay: The Legal Ramifications Essay Sample

June 7th, 2016 Comments off

Terrorist attacks on the 11th of September, 2011 affected not just the USA, but the whole world. It forced the President George W. Bush to announce the US War on Terror a couple of hours after it had happened. That’s why a counter-terrorism campaign Guantanamo Bay, known as a “legal black hole”, was created.

At the southern tip of Cuba there is an island known as Guantanamo. Guantanamo Bay is a detention facility operated by the US authorities serving as a prison for more than 200 detainees living in it. Terrorist attack suspects, political adversaries, country enemies and any person involved or suspected in terrorist acts can be found among the prisoners. Such combatants were captured in the US War on Terror. There are four main acting camps situated there:Camp Delta, Camp Echo, Camp Iguana, and Camp X-Ray. All of them are studiously controlled and watched by the US administration.

Due to the Cuban ban and inability to cross the border, the only way to the island is flying by American aircraft which takes a circuitous route of a three hour’s length. What is more, the access to Guantanamo Naval Base is limited for visitors; apart from the government officials and military, only selected mass media representatives and “habeas lawyers” are welcome.

The Guantanamo detention facility has been seriously criticized and debated by many activists over the past years and there are still a lot of contradictions and arguments for its existence. It was on January 21, 2009 that  Guantanamo Naval Base was promised to be shut down by Barack Obama. This announcement caused a lot of disputes on whether to close the facility or not and the possible effects of doing so.

Human rights activists are combating against Guantanamo Bay and they consider this facility to be a Human Rights violation stronghold. Plus, they continue riots and apply  pressure on Obama’s administration as much as they can.

The riots and strikes were also organized by detainees: some of them went on hunger strikes due to numerous complaints of being kept in close cells with no privacy; inmates state that they are kept in isolation and are not allowed to talk in groups.

But as a matter of fact, each inmate is provided with Islamic religious articles, regular meals and everyday possibility to visit Islamic religious services. There is also a library with wide range of literature accessible to everyone. Detainees have a right to visit the classes and learn different subjects and foreign languages there.

Releasing the detainees may give a green light to future Al-Qaeda terrorist acts. In addition, releasing the inmates doesn’t guarantee the fact that they will not join any terrorist group of the Arabian Peninsula in future. Some detainees do need a good safety cover and released prisoners have to be taken care of. All possibly and factually released captors can’t return to their home countries according to the Release Act, which also complicates the situation.

All in all,making a promise to close the facility was easy, but with the course of events it can be seen that keeping this promise is close to impossible.


1. Ackerman, S. (2016). Guantánamo Bay: Obama reiterates call to close prison in final plan to Congress. [online] the Guardian. Available at: [Accessed 1 May 2016].
2. The White House. (2016). President Obama Delivers Remarks on Closing of Guantanamo Bay. [online] Available at: [Accessed 1 May 2016].
3. (2016). Our Mission – Welcome to “Close Guantánamo”. [online] Available at: [Accessed 1 May 2016].
4. (2016). UN Convention Against Torture. [online] Available at: [Accessed 1 May 2016].
5. Congressional Research Service, (2009). Closing the Guantanamo Detention Center: Legal Issues. CRS Report for Congress.
6. Crowley, M. (2013). Why Gitmo Will Never Close | [online] Available at: [Accessed 16 Jun. 2015].
7. Daskal, J. (2013). Don’t Close Guantánamo. [online] Available at: [Accessed 16 Jun. 2015].

How to Know What Kind of Lawyer You’d Like to Become

June 7th, 2016 Comments off

how to be a lawyer

In today’s contemporary society having a personal psychiatrist who you visit once or twice a week is considered normal, acceptable and desired. But having a personal lawyer who you can address anytime on different issues is a must.

More and more people are striving for becoming successful and well-paid lawyers these days. But in order to become one of them,it’s very important to choose the right lawyer specialization. Below you can find our lawyer specializations guide with advice that will help you to make the decision on what type of lawyer you would like to be.

Listen to Your Heart

There’s a huge difference between the type of a lawyer you want to be and the type of a lawyer you truly are. These are not just the dreams and ambitions, but also common sense and self-analysis. Who else but you would know what you are really good at and what skills for this or that particular position you have. As people say: “It’s better to be excellent at one thing, rather than good at many things”.

Practice, Practice, Practice

Choosing the lawyer type you want to become is one thing. But apart from making this choice a lot of efforts are to be put to become one. Constant library visits, a lot of literature and reading are your friends on this way. Of course law materials cost a fortune, but aren’t they worth it?

Knowledge Is Power

Who owns information – owns the world. Make deep research on lawyer types and try to choose the one to your liking: family lawyer, tax lawyer, criminal lawyer, general practice lawyer, immigration lawyer, etc. Needed skills, decent knowledge, required education and subjects are also to be examined.

Just Ask

The best way to get some useful recommendations is to ask those who are involved in the similar sphere. Interesting cases, a word of advice and other helpful guidance on future choice won’t be out of place. It’s only due to practice and experience of others that you will be able to get a better insight in the “world of law”.

Be Ready to Change

You may be convinced that you are an inborn corporate law attorney, working on a flexible schedule and leading a busy life. You can’t imagine yourself working in another position. But at some point you want to be a family lawyer. No panic, it’s ok to have situations like that. It’s important to be always ready to change.

It’s worth mentioning that making the right choice is good. But sometimes it’s making the wrong choice that helps us understand  what we want for ourselves. Hope our lawyer specializations guide had had set you on the right path, good luck!

7 Books You Need to Read for Legal Drafting

May 17th, 2016 Comments off

books legalThe matter of legal drafting is a strongly composed method of writing, which can be quite scary for a person who have never dealt with it. The initial stage of writing a legal document is understanding its context. It includes learning the language applied in legal hearing, and the names of legal scholars and attorneys in every court case. When unfamiliar with the law sphere, a law dictionary is the first book of choice.

Here are a few legal drafting books, that will help you to excel in the legal drafting process.

  • Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary of Law (2011). This is a convenient and extensive guide to the language of law. It can be useful for both novice writers and the legal professionals. The dictionary includes more than 10,000 articles, as well as pronunciations and quotations.


  • Black’s Law Dictionary (2009). The most widely cited law book. With more than 45,000 articles, including new terms, it is considered to be the gold standard for the language of law.
  • Legal Writing in a Nutshell by Lynn Bahrych (2009). This is the lawyer’s handbook for writing more efficiently, plainly and precisely. The book provides keys to writing briefs and legal memoranda, creating clear and concise sentences, accurate use of legal language and grammar, and to convincing writing. It also describes methods for analysing and improving an individual writing style, as well as samples of briefs and legal memoranda to illustrate effective techniques.
  • Legal Writing Handbook: Analysis, Research, and Writing by Anne Enquist and Laurel Currie Oates. The book focuses on the key components of the legal writing: research, writing and analysis. With its comprehensive approach, the book is extremely popular among the law students and professors. Besides, it offers advice on how to avoid procrastination and other writing barriers.
  • Legal Writing by Sheila Simon and Richard K. Neumann (2011). This friendly book provides a brief yet complete coverage of appellate briefs, motion memos and office memos. An informal style teaches through the process of writing and the use of storytelling and policy to build an argument.
  • The Redbook: A Manual on Legal Style by Bryan A. Garner, Jeff Newman, and Tiger Jackson (2006). The book includes an extensive guide to essential rules of legal writing. It focuses on the particular needs of legal writers and answers the questions about grammar and style. It gives authoritative and detailed advice on spelling, punctuation, footnotes, citations and capitalisation, with illustrations in legal context. It describes how legal writing differs from other styles of writing.
  • Legal Writing: A Systematic Approach by Diana Pratt (2004). The book is written for law students. Each step of the writing process is introduced separately, so students could master each skill before taking another one. The book includes an introduction to the law, the basic office memorandum, legal analysis, a brief to the trial court, appellate and oral advocacy.

Legal writing could be challenging for newcomers, as well as for the experienced writers. However, scholars publish legal drafting books and writing guides to support new legal writers, so they know where to start, and advanced ones helping them to polish their work.

Legal Pleading Guide of a Prime Lawyer

May 17th, 2016 Comments off

social networks

A legal pleading is a formally written statement, which is filed in a civil action. It can run a claim against another person, or it can be an answer to a claim. It also serves as a notification to the judge in a current case that judicial intervention is needed. Legal pleading can be difficult to draft if you are not familiar with such forms. However, there are some starting points to begin with and, so, we begin our legal pleading guide.

Learning the Requirements

First, find a pleading form. Some courts have blanks, so, check if your court has one. You should also learn the local rules about formatting the pleading. An example of a pleading, which has been filed earlier, could help you during the formatting. If you can’t find any information about it, ask the court’s clerk.

Knowing the Issues and Facts

Your client’s position can be stronger, when you collect as much background information as possible before filing suit. By making a written request you can obtain information and records from parties other, than your potential defendant. In some cases a written permission from your client is needed. For medical records you should comply with privacy standards of Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act. In case facts critical to the complaint cannot be collected informally, a writ of summons should be filed and formal discovery should be taken.

Identifying  the Parties

A pleading has to clearly identify the parties. You should avoid missing or misidentifying anyone. Therefore, after a careful review of your materials, make clear determinations of the plaintiff and the defendant. A claim can be brought by a real party concerned. Persons or institutions, which can be sued, are specified by jurisdictional law and under the rules of civil procedure. Jurisdictions may have specific rules concerning who may sue and be sued in claims by or against a minor, a state or commonwealth, an incompetent, a partnership, a political subdivision, a corporation or an unincorporated association.

For clarity in the pleading, each party must be identified by name, position or businesses of the individual, and his or her current or last-known address.

Formatting the Pleading

The content of the claim depends on the particular elements and facts of the cause of action. Most rules require just a brief statement of the case to notify the defendant about the issues of the case as well as what the plaintiff is tending to prove.

Each claim against each party should be included in a separate count. It is not mandatory to repeat each factual statement in each count. Prior facts can be incorporated by reference.

If the case involves fraudulent activity, all details of the supposed fraud must be provided. Complaints under the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organization Act must unequivocally provide information on the acts necessary to appeal a RICO claim.

Hopefully this legal pleading guide will serve you as viable memo for your future law practice. Don’t forget to use a relevant form and complete the captions as required by relevant law. Sign your pleading after the body of the document, type your full name and put the date.

Legal Career and Social Networks or Why Twitter Should Be Taught in Law School

May 17th, 2016 Comments off

legal pleading guide

Believe it or not, but the truth is that writing for some internet audiences on the successful platforms like Facebook or Twitter is one of the skills that may give the lawyers an opportunity to benefit from various career advantages. That is why it’s a great idea for the law schools is to give more attention to the legal education with the use of the social networks.

As stated by the Law instructors, a bunch of law professors have succeeded in teaching future lawyers to write specially for the public audience. However, nowadays legal education still has a lack of perfectly developed pedagogy on how law students can develop essential skills in order to write for internet audiences as effectively as they can.

The problem is that legal writing textbooks never address this type of writing. For law students, having excellent skills in public legal writing will be a huge advantage over the ones, who cannot boast of having those capacities. Without a doubt, public legal writing must be taken into consideration as an amazing addition for the curriculum of every law school.

The instructors of the law schools insist that nowadays is the right time to bring scholarly attention to the legal writing: tweets, interesting blog posts and the rest of the social media writing that a bunch of lawyers already produce and that a lot of other people would choose producing if they has skills and time to cope with it.

When the question is about Twitter and its benefits for the law students, it gives them an opportunity to meet new people directly. Of course, you won’t be able to have a face-to-face conversation with every famous individual that you wish to be introduced to. However, Twitter is your chance to meet people, who have the same interests. To add more, those people will also get a chance to reach out to you.

Meeting new people through their work is the other advantage of Twitter in law school classes. Thus, students will get a chance to surround themselves with helpful and interesting individuals, who are engaged in the same work that they will eventually be eager to do. In contrast to the networks like LinkedIn and Facebook, Twitter gives you an opportunity to ‘follow’ anyone you would like to hear from. Let’s say you’re passionate about a certain type of law that is not common for the mates in your law school. That is why it is a great idea to know more about Twitter and find people with the same interests. They actively Tweet about what they like and will be glad to encourage you to do the same thing effectively.

Through studying not only legal writing but the other sorts of public writing as well, law students will have a unique chance to build their proficient knowledge and get the skills in a rhetorical practice. They can easily build upon what they know already on traditional legal writing and become stronger when dealing with the Twitter activities.

When Twitter will be included into the curricula of the law schools, the students will be able to get the skills they are in need of to contribute to the studying process and to be linked to the outer world of professionals

Sample Essay on Geneva Conventions

May 17th, 2016 Comments off

geneva conventions

Geneva Conventions are international agreements, concluded between 1864 and 1949. They include four treaties and three additional protocols which set the standards of international law for ameliorating the effects of war on soldiers, prisoners of war and civilians.

In 1864 twelve European nations signed an agreement, which stated that during future wars they should care for all wounded and sick militaries on land regardless of nationality. The neutrality of medical personnel was recognised as well. The agreement was called the Geneva Convention, which concerned only militaries wounded on the battlefield. Later it was expanded to cover every person caught up in conflicts.In 1949 four Geneva Conventions were composed, which covered armed forces, prisoners of war, and civilians. The Second Convention covered the sick, wounded and shipwrecked militaries at sea during war. The third one referred to prisoners of war claiming that they should be released and repatriated after the termination of active hostilities. The Fourth Geneva Convention ensured civilians protection.In 1977 two additional protocols were signed at a diplomatic conference. The First Protocol concerned international conflicts, the Second one covered non-international conflicts. In 2005 the Third Protocol was added to the Convention. It regarded the additional distinctive emblems.

The main points of the Geneva Conventions are the following:

The wounded, sick and shipwrecked individuals have to be cared for adequately. All efforts should be directed to quickly collecting the dead. Death must be confirmed by medical examination. Bodies have to be identified and protected from robbery. Medical equipment must not be destroyed intentionally, medical buildings and vehicles must not be damaged and prevented from being operated or attacked even if they do not contain patients.

The surrendering soldiers are entitled to respect for their integrity and lives, so they should not be injured or killed. The sick and wounded have to be cared for by the controlling force, the emblem of the red cross, red crystal and red crescent has to be respected.

Captured militaries are entitled to respect for their dignity, lives, convictions and personal rights. They must be protected, also they have the right to receive assistance.

No punishment can be held without trial, no one must be subjected to mental or physical torment, as well as degrading or cruel treatment.

Parties of a conflict and their armed forces members cannot use all means and methods of war. It is prohibited to apply methods or weapons of a tendency to cause excessive suffering or unnecessary losses. The parties of the conflict have to distinguish between the combatants and civilian population and respect civilian population and property.

Today all Geneva Conventions are accepted by every state in the world. The Conventions with their 159 articles are complicated and long. However, they protect helpless and vulnerable persons.


  1. Abresch, William. A Human Rights Law of Internal Armed Conflict: The European Court of Human Rights in Chechnya. European Journal of International Law 16 (4), 2005.
  2. Bugnion, Francios. The Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949: From the 1949 Diplomatic Conference to the Dawn of the New Millennium. International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs 1944) 76: 41–51, 2000.
  3. David P. Forsythe. The International Committee of the Red Cross: A Neutral Humanitarian Actor. Routledge, 2007.
  4. Keylor, William R. The Twentieth Century World and Beyond. Oxford University Press, New York, 2011.
  5. Khouri, Rami. International Law, Torture and Accountability. Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard University, 2009.
  6. Kolb, Robert. Ius in bello. Basel: Helbing Lichtenhahn, 2009.
  7. Sixty years of the Geneva Conventions and the decades ahead. International Committee of the Red Cross, 2009.