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Sample Essay on Victimless Crime The Relativity and Enforcement

October 10th, 2016 Comments off

It is said that “Ignorance of the law is no excuse“, but actually nowadays people can find any excuse for the committed crime and have even invented the term “victimless crime”. The following notion is used to refer to the actions that are forbidden by law, but cause no direct harm to health and rights of other people. It includes prostitution, gambling, abortions, ecological crimes, drug abuse. Such victimless crimes give way and promote to commitment of secondary crimes in future, called would-be crimes.

More and more offenders and new crimes are being made every day. The United States of America has the highest level of crimes commitment and this country takes the first place in the world for the number of prisoners present per 100 000 population.

There are people who state that there is no such term as “victimless crime”. Victimologists believe that there are no crimes that are really victimless. Something or someone is always in danger, hurt or offended.  But there are people who state there are a lot of types of victimless crimes, thus the term is considered to be vague and abstract in terms of its classification.

First, crimes committed by mutual agreement, as a rule, they don’t do any harm to any party involved.

Second, crimes where harm is self-inflicted, like suicide or drug abuse.

Third, crimes against abstract “society” or group of people without any victims, e.g. driving without fastening the seat belts.

Fourth, crimes against specific or non-physical “victims”, for example against the government.

Fifth, crimes against specific “victims” associated with “victims” who do not allow to commit a legalized offense against them.

In every democratic society, adoption of a law that punishes “victimless crime” eventually leads to the abolition of the law, as it has previously happened with the criminal prosecution of homosexuality in most democratic countries at the end of the XX century. For the time being there are myriad of cases where the status “victimless crimes” was given. The Netherlands had legalized marijuana smoking, both for citizens and for foreign tourists. In Australia and Portugal it is allowed to keep no more than 50 grams of marijuana. “Prohibition Law” in the United States was canceled, and there is a tendency for the legalization of cannabis and other “illegal substances”, both in the USA and in other countries. Prostitution is legal in countries such as Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Costa Rica, France, Germany, Greece, Mexico, Italy, Israel, and many other countries.

When all is said and done, every person is responsible for his or her deeds and has to stand trial in case of any crime committed. And it doesn’t matter whether it’s a serious or a petty crime, there is always a victim and a guilty party that has to answer for the actions made.


  1. Victims’ Code, victim Support. [online] Available at:’-code [Accessed 10 May 2016].
  2. The Myth of the Victimless Crime by Melissa Farley, March 12, 2008
  3. Are Data Breaches A Victimless Crime? By Paul Roberts, September 28, 2015
  4. The fallacies of “victimless crime” and “idiot tax” by Paul Cooijmans, January 2010
  5. Protecting the Victims of the “Victimless Crime” by Samuel Hall for, May 24, 2016

To Be Brief in Legal Writing The Final Warnings for Lawyers Who Can’t Get to the Point

October 10th, 2016 Comments off

The ability to properly, accurately convey your thoughts by means of language is the highest culture of speech. But the ability to properly convey your thoughts and at the same time to be brief, to the point and clear in legal writing is a perfect mastery. Legal writing requires specific knowledge not just in linguistic sphere, but in judicial as well.

Only well-qualified lawyers who have sufficient knowledge not only in the field of law, but in other spheres of public life as well, can be real experts in legal writing. The primary reason of legal writing is to give information, persuade in the given and make the influence on the reader and the audience of their interests, mood, feelings and behavior. Legal writing must have scientific content and comply with the norms of legal writing.

There are different factors that can help lawyers to be brief, to the point and clear in this craft so here we present to you a few legal writing tips that will help.

Clarity of Thought

First, clarity of thought and accurately presented information. The main goal of each message, either written or an oral one, is to get the word out.  The most important quality of a successful legal writing is considered to be accuracy. It must be remembered that inaccurately selected word in an oral speech can be corrected, but in the written one it can’t be done.


Second, logic and semantic accuracy (uniqueness) of presented information. Legal writing requires the most exact, logical, unequivocal expression of thought and form of thinking. All the facts and the information must be placed in a strict logical order.  Clarity is achieved by a clear composition, logical exposition, persuasive arguments. Clarity involves the use of complex syntax and semantics to express the thoughts, especially in the reasoning and the operative part of the documents.


Third, conciseness, lack of verbosity and avoidance of unnecessary, irrelevant thoughts. Laconism is a key to success in every legal writing. But being brief doesn’t mean forgetting about grammar rules.  The shorter the sentences the more chances are that the reader will catch the main idea and bullet points in the text. It’s important to get rid of legalese jargon, too ink-horn terms.


Fourth, proper vocabulary and use of language. Legal writing requires the knowledge of technical terminology, specialized phrases and words used in legal sphere. Formality is another outstanding feature that has to be taken into consideration. It’s also very important to remember about the intended audience depending on the type of the document you are compiling.  Writing must be properly organized and guide the reader by means of introduction paragraphs, linking words, headings and subheadings that are a road map to the reader.

To sum up, the main tool of every top-tier lawyer is the language.  By means of the language we can compile legal writings, stand up for the rights of the clients, appear before a court and simply communicate with each other.  Whatever writings you made before, it has nothing to do with compiling the legal ones which are absolutely different and difficult to make.

Sample Essay on the Continuity of Government Armageddon Backup Plan of the US

October 10th, 2016 Comments off


Despite various catastrophes, disasters, natural calamities and wars that take place these days, humanity continues to believe in a better tomorrow and eternity of the Universe. But what if one day the world ceases to exist and we all die? Will money and backup plans save us and help us to preserve our lives? But even being rich and influential doesn’t necessarily mean we can come up with a functional back-plan or a safe haven in case of armageddon or apocalypse. While we are thinking about the options, government authorities have everything planned long in advance.

Specially constructed emergency center called Mount Weather Emergency Operations Center (MWEOC) is another top-secret military base which is located in the mountains of the USA. It plays an important role in the USA continuity of state plans. It is situated in the city Berriville (Clarke County, Virginia). The purpose of the operations center is to protect military elite, high-ranking officials in case of large-scale disasters. The facility started functioning on November 9, 1965 during the times of Northeastern power blackout and continues to operate today as the emergency center in case of disasters or natural calamities.

Today, the Center is administered by the Federal Agency for Emergency Situations of the United States. In the case of a global catastrophe Emergency Operations Center Mount Weather will be a place for the evacuation of Washington politicians and other state figures. Numerous residential and recreational above-ground and underground facilities, radio and television stations, crematorium, hospital can be found on the territory of the Center. Mount Weather operates on the autonomous level, it has its own fire and police departments, own leaders and own regulations.

Mount Weather consists of eight functional groups, such as The Virginia National Processing Center (VNPSC) with a core aim to help individuals who suffered from any disaster. The Disaster Finance Center (DFC) is responsible for the compensation, expenses and financial management to the impacted party. The Disaster Information Systems Clearinghouse (DISC) provides the necessary information on any possible catastrophe. The Disaster Personnel Operations Division (DPOD) is responsible for the efficient work of the personnel and the fast feedback to those who suffered in a disaster. The Agency Logistics Center (ALC) provides the needed material and transfers the goods to the hurt party. The Conference and Training Center (CTC) functions as the means of holding different events on the territory of the Center. The Information Technology Services Division (ITS) makes sure that all the necessary communication support and technical equipment are provided. Mount Weather Management Division (MWMD) is responsible for the health care, water, transportation, electrical power and other types of basic service.

To sum up, US continuity operation plan is not just a simple backup plan in case of armageddon, but a serious standing military operation with a lot of classified information.


  1. State of Emergency and “Continuity of Government”: What is the Real Reason the Government is Spying on Americans? By Washington’s Blog, October 08, 2013
  2. Continuity of Operations. Official website of the Department of Homeland Security, November 11, 2016
  3. Continuity of government police state by Marc Ambinder, National Journal Website, April 11, 2011
  4. Shadow Government Is at Work in Secret by Barton Gellman and Susan Schmidt, Washington Post Staff Writers, March 1, 2002
  5. Continuity of Government: The hidden government group linking JFK, Watergate, Iran-Contra and 9/11? By Peter Dale Scott, October 05, 2014

Law School Applications of 2016 Drop The Current and Future State of Legal Education

October 10th, 2016 Comments off


Selection of job and future profession in the law sphere is a challenging thing for graduates and their parents. But a more challenging task is to choose the law school to enter. There are a lot of law institutions these days where you can get a good education to become a top-tier lawyer. But more and more people stop applying for legal schools and those who applied may never even work in this sphere throughout their lives.

There is a huge decrease of attendees and applicants to law schools nowadays. As a result, a lot of institutions have to come up with a more flexible schedule, cut the classes, reduce tuition and what is more, some of them are obliged to shut their doors once and forever due to the shortage of applicants. If such tendency continues to exist, we may encounter law job stagnation.

In the year 2014 there was a drop of attendees and applicants by 30% from four previous years. In 2016, the number of law students applying for the schools had slightly dropped by 2,3% which is not much compared with the year 2014. It was in 1973 when the enrolments were this low. There are small sized classes as a result and in some schools there is also a lack of students. Even the best law schools are attracting less students. Now it’s getting more and more easy to get into law school due to the less competition. The major reason for this is Great Recession and market crash.

There are a lot of factors that led to this law school applications drop.

Lower Interest of Applicants in Legal Sphere and Education in Particular

Some attendees want to get a legal education just for the sake of appearance. Some applicants are not even sure whether they want to work in this sphere in future, they stick to the statement that lawyers are always in demand and it would be useful and prestigious to have such education.

Job Challenges That Lawyers Encounter Seem to Be Too Intimidating for the Applicants

Legal education is a hard nut to crack and you need to spend a lot of sleepless nights to gain decent knowledge in this sphere. Apart from theory, practice is needed and the more practice you have the better prospects of becoming a qualified lawyer are ahead of you.

Low Test Scores, Underperformance and Poor Level of Knowledge

Applicants get very bad and low scores and don’t meet the admission test requirements while applying for the school. Lots of people find Law School Admission test very difficult and fail at it.

High Price to Pay for Education

Price does matter in terms of paying for the education, especially for the legal one where the image and rating of the university you are applying for is of the utmost importance.

To sum up, drastic changes will happen to the legal education and law schools graduates due to this law school applications decrease. New educational approaches, new reforms, new types of schools, new types of students will be different from what they are today.

The Bloodiest Shooting in the US History The Orlando Case Essay Sample

August 18th, 2016 Comments off


They say it doesn’t matter what the color of your skin is, what religion you have or what country you originally come from. Sexual orientation however remains a difficult issue despite everything. Despite the fact that gays and lesbians are no longer a surprise for the people all over the world, homosexual marriages are legalized in a lot of countries and homosexual families can even adopt a child, some people do act aggressively towards them by not accepting such behavior. The proof of this is the mass shooting that took place in Orlando gay club, USA.

On June 12, 2016 a lot of clubgoers were enjoying the “Latin Flavor” event in a gay nightclub Pulse, Orlando when suddenly numerous gunshots were heard. In the early morning hours 32 year old security guard Omar Mir Seddique Mateen killed 49 people in the nightclub. Apart from the killed and the wounded there were hostages who decided to hide in the bathroom when the massacre started. People who were trapped inside the club texted and called their relatives and friends desperately crying for help.

The killer decided to call 911 and pledged the allegiance to ISIS and also mentioned the Boston Marathon event. Omar Mateen was well organized and well prepared for the shooting, he carried an assault rifle and a pistol into the club. Police crashed inside the club with stun grenades, armored vehicle and killed Mateen.

The attack was denounced by various groups, including the Afghan President Mohammad Ashraf Ghani, Vatican, the Council on American-Islamic Relations. American President Barack Obama called the shooting “an act of terror and hate” towards lesbians, gays, bisexuals, transgender and others.

Parents of Omar Mateen claimed no connection of their son to ISIS and don’t consider him to be a very religious person. Nevertheless, police had to evacuate around 200 people from the Fort Pierce apartment complex he lived in because of the fear to find any possible explosives. In 2013 and 2014 Omar Mateen who was 29 years old at that time was interviewed by the FBI, but was released shortly after as he wasn’t found a threat according to the FBI.

According to his ex-wife Sitora Yusufiy, Mateen acted as a normal husband at the very beginning of their marriage, but started abusing her after a couple of months. That was the reason they decided to have a divorce. Not being diagnosed with any mental disease, Mateen’s ex-wife considers him to be bipolar.

There were other deadly shootings in the USA before, such as shooting in Charleston, SC, 9 casualties; Aurora, CO, 12 casualties; Littleton, CO, 14 casualties; San Bernandino, CO, 14 casualties; Newtown, CT, 26 casualties; mass shooting in Blacksburg, VA, 32 casualties and Orlando, FL with more than 49 casualties and 53 wounded people. But Orlando shooting is considered to be one of the most terrible mass shootings in the US history with the biggest amount of casualties.

Whatever arguments we may have for or against homosexual, bisexual, transgender people it doesn’t give us a right to kill. All men are created equal and have a right to choose.


  1. Ralph Ellis, Ashley FantzFaith Karimiand Eliott C. McLaughlin, CNN. Orlando shooting: 49 killed, shooter pledged ISIS allegiance. June 13, 2016. Web. ‹›.
  2. Gregor Aisch, Larry Buchanan, Joe Burgess, Ford Fessenden. New York Times. What Happened Inside the Orlando Nightclub. June 12, 2016. Web. ‹›.
  3. Ian Millhiser. Congress’ Response To Orlando Shooting Is To Try To Legalize Discrimination. July 11, 2016. Web. ‹
  4. Anne Claire Stapleton and Ralph Ellis. CNN. Timeline of Orlando nightclub shooting. June 12, 2016. Web. ‹›.
  5. Lizette Alvarez. The New York Times, US. Orlando Gunman Was ‘Cool and Calm’ After Massacre, Police Say. June 13, 2016. Web. ‹›.

Microsoft vs European Union Essay Essay Sample

August 18th, 2016 Comments off


It’s said that eggs and promises are easily broken and it’s always easy to give a promise, rather than keep it.  There is nothing worse than a broken promise, especially when this promise costs $732 million and a lot of troubles. The European Union fined Microsoft Corp for the disrespect of the promise given earlier. Binding commitment and a promise, given by Microsoft in 2009 was not kept and had cost Microsoft Corp $732 million in the way of a fine given by the EU’s antitrust body.

According to the commitment, given by Microsoft in 2009, it offered the users a chance to choose the Web browser they preferred. Microsoft agreed to change Windows for five years and gave the users of newly bought computers in Europe a ballot screen due to which everyone could easily download other browsers from the Internet and turn off Microsoft’s browser, Internet Explorer. At the end of 2011 it has been reported by Microsoft representatives to the EU’s commission that the obligation had been kept, but after the investigation it turned out that it was violated.

According to the Microsoft spokesman the following situation occurred due to some technical errors and a promise to fix and elaborate the problem in future was given by the Microsoft Corp representatives. There were previous disputes between the EU’s antitrust institution and Microsoft Corp before. In 2004 Microsoft was accused of abusing its market position and was fined as it linked Windows Media Player to the Windows software package again leaving no choice to the users.

According to the investigation, Microsoft Corp failed to follow the obligation and as a result, 15 million users didn’t get a chance to select the browser they wanted. For the first time in history the EU and European Union’s antitrust authorities fined a corporation for the neglect to perform the obligations. According to the deal, EU’s antitrust committee can put a fine of up 10% of a company’s global annual sales, but the real fine represented 1% of Microsoft’s annual sales as the corporation cooperated easily with the committee and took no stand. Of course, for the company like Microsoft with $68 billion reserves it’s not a problem to cover such fine. It is estimated that when we compile all the issued fines against Microsoft Corp over the past decades it will be more than 2.2 billion euros.

According to the EU’s representative Joaquin Almunia, this situation will encourage a lot of companies and enterprises to give a great deal of thought before making any promises. What is more, it will serve as a warning to other corporations. Joaquin Almunia called the deal made in 2009, the actions of EU’s representatives and the people who believed this promise to be more than naive. There are other companies apart from Microsoft that are under investigation. Among them is Google for the way it ranks search engine results and another major technology company Samsung Electronics.

To sum up, a deal is a deal and any non-compliance, especially when it comes to such a world-known corporation as Microsoft will cost a fortune with inevitable fine.


  1. European commission. Press release. Antitrust: Commission fines Microsoft for non-compliance with browser choice commitments, 6 March 2013, Brussels. Web. ‹›.
  2. Dawn Kawamoto. CNET EU slaps Microsoft with $1.35 billion fine. 6 March, 2013. Brussels. ‹›.
  3. Foo Yun Chee. EU fines Microsoft $731 million for broken promise, warns others. 6 March, 2013. Brussels. Web. ‹
  4. Vanessa Mock. EU Fines Microsoft $732 Million. 6 March, 2013. Brussels. Web.‹›.
  5. Joh Letzing. European regulator fines Microsoft $1.35 billion. 27, 2008, San Francisco. Web. ‹›.

How to Write a Federal Court Complaint

August 18th, 2016 Comments off


Every person had encountered a situation where he or she faced an issue by receiving poor service or bad treatment from other people. In order to prevent such cases in future people file letters of complaint to appropriate authorities that later deal with this issue. Some people find it difficult to compile such types of letters and may include a lot of negative emotions in it rather than facts. Below you can find the tips that may help you to make a federal court complaint.

Outline the Case Correctly

In a federal law complaint describe the situation clearly and in an understandable way, also make sure that the issue described in letter is a legitimate one. If you have any problems with compiling a letter, you can ask the help of professionals. Help of paper writing service is legal and may help you to provide concise, yet all the necessary information. It is important to include valid and profound evidence and a timeline of events.

Include Necessary Information

It’s important to indicate all the necessary information in the paper, such as: address, full name, discriminated party’s name, telephone numbers and the quickest way to reach both parties. Address and name of the organization, person or business that made the discrimination is to be included as well. Extra information that can support the complaint is to be indicated as well. It has to be signed to be presented for the hearing. Some federal district courts prefer the document to be filed via electronic way.

Mind Structural Elements

While compiling a federal court complaint it is recommended to structure it properly. Federal complaint consists of various structural elements. The first element is heading or caption, it has a brief description of the complaint, parties involved and a court where the case is to be originated. Filing attorney’s name, address and telephone number are indicated in this section as well.

The second element is venue or jurisdiction, where selected court for the case hearing is indicated along with the explanations as for why exactly this court was chosen.  The third element is parties involved, where defendants and plaintiffs are mentioned.  In the fourth section definitions, terms and notions used in the document are defined and explained.  Statement of facts is the fifth element where the evidence that brought the case to the court is described.

The sixth element “cause of action” or “counts” has a list with the legal allegations with detailed information about the application of the governing law to every court. Existing Law and previous decisions are indicated in this section as well. The seventh element “injury” provides the information on how seriously plaintiff’s rights were harmed by the defendant. Last element is called “demand for relief” which describes the plaintiff’s relief in seeking as a result of the lawsuit. Required compensation and damages are listed here as well.

To sum up, federal complaint is a hard nut to crack and needs studious preparation and knowledge to compile it in the right way. Due to the fact that it’s a legal document, it requires the help of an attorney or writing service, time and legal knowledge.

Business Education vs Law Education

August 18th, 2016 Comments off


Famous proverb says: “Live and learn” and the more you learn, the better future you will have and the bigger career perspectives are ahead of you. Education plays an important role in everyone’s life and due to today’s sophisticated technologies and advancements in educational sphere there are a lot of interesting courses to take and various careers to choose from. Every person has the possibility to get an education even without leaving the house, the only thing needed is a wish and the Internet connection. You can become a successful lawyer or get an MBA, it’s only the matter of time and money.

There is a constant dilemma: what sphere to choose and what courses to take. To do business, or to do law – that is the question and the question is a challenging one. Person’s skills, desired income and goals in life can help to define whether law or business education is more suitable for this person. For many people it’s not an easy choice to make.

When comparing business education vs law, there are many people who consider business education to be more interesting and useful one rather than the law education.

High Career Prospects

First, business education gives higher career prospects for businessmen and businesswomen and for some of them it can happen very quickly. In the law sphere it’s not that easy to get high career prospects at once and it takes much time to become a well know lawyer and get a top position in this sphere.

Good Income

Second, business education has a stable, fixed income with the ability to earn extra money at the same time. Being a businessman gives a possibility to one day get rich due to a lucrative project, good value or simply luck. Being a lawyer, even a top one, means having your income determined by hours billed and hours spent working. As a result, the more hours you work, the more money you make.

No Further Exams to Take

Third, business education needs no further exams and knowledge tests to pass. Getting an MBA doesn’t require repeat tests or exams unlike for lawyers. Lawyers need to pass Bar Exam or Continuing Legal Education exam that need studious preparation, profound knowledge and a lot of practice. There is a constant need for qualifications if you have a wish to be a lawyer or a barrister and you need to pay for such education every time.  Having got an MBA gives you a green light to practice business and continue your education even in a different sphere.

Unlimited Possibilities

Fourth, business education implies unlimited possibilities and diversity. Business sphere is very wide in terms of careers to choose and spheres to work at. You may have a couple of different business enterprises that are in different countries and it gives you an ability to develop in different ways. Of course, the law is also constantly changing and you need to keep up to date, but as a rule, the work lawyers do is almost repetitive, such as paperwork filling, dealing with the same or similar cases.

There are people who think that you need to be born a businessman and have an inborn talent and liking for this. And whatever business courses you take or whatever business schools and universities you attend, it has to be bred in your bone. Business is not learnt, it has to be in your blood.

To sum up, it’s never too late to study and learn something new and interesting, whatever you find more gainful in battle of business education vs law. The only important thing is to clearly understand what sphere is not only to your liking, but what sphere you are more skilled at.

Essay Sample: Police Killing Black Men

August 18th, 2016 Comments off


Nowadays, the majority of racial prejudice cases in the USA is quite subtle. Together with that, they tend to reappear in stealthier ways that they did one or two decades ago. The researches have shown that the issue of racial prejudice can be traced in how teachers tend to punish misbehaving students, how employers see their potential hires or how the sales experts make their choices when it comes to assisting clients at high-end stores. As a rule, it happens somewhere on the subconscious level, where race-based evaluations take place.

The latest research on the subject has revealed that almost every individuals tends to carry the so-called racial prejudice, also known as the ‘implicit bias.’ When talking about policemen, the implicit bias appears to be a great concern mainly due to the devastating effects it brings.

There are representatives of the law enforcement area, who realize how tragic the implicit bias effects can be. But the reality is that no one seems to understand it more than the individuals, who actually live in the areas, where racial conflicts are mainly caused by the police. When it comes to the reaction to police killings since the tragedy with Michael Brown in Ferguson it becomes clear that the whole system makes such shootings disproportionately common.

A University of South Florida expert Lorie Fridell exerts every effort to help cops stay away from subconscious biases, especially when it comes to black men. Fridell insists on her viewpoint that policemen have a range of stereotypes and prejudice that together come with outward hostility. In their everyday work, cops have the right to use force depending on their personal perception of what threat is. More often than not, their viewpoints are far from rational. Of course, they do not always use force, but the level of unreasonable injuries remains high.

The experts of the University of Colorado Boulder and California State University Northridge have thoroughly investigated the decade of empirical evidence regarding the police officers and implicit bias. They have found that if some cops tend to automatically consider Afro-Americans more dangerous, they are more likely to make use of deadly force against black men that is not illegal, however, unnecessary.

The researchers found cops seem to possess the so-called implicit bias. The latter is reported to make them more likely to kill black men than people with white skin. But the authorities can change the situation through professional training that will help cops perform better and, as a result, show less implicit bias.

The other investigation found that not only police officers, but the public as well, tend to view individuals with black skin less innocent regardless the situation. According to the study published in 2014 by the specialists of the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 176 individuals were tested. The group of people included mostly white, male cops.  Each of them was tested to find out whether they had the so-called unconscious dehumanization bias against Afro-Americans. The results of the research should make us stop for a while and think about our attitude toward the world around. More often than not, black people were dehumanized and considered to commit the worst kind of crimes.


  • Ronald Chisom & Michael Washington, Undoing Racism: A Philosophy of International Social Change. New Orleans, People’s Institute Press, 2nd ed., 1997.
  • John Henrik Clarke, “White Nationalism,” (a tape aired on KPFA during African Mental Liberation Weekend, early 1990’s.
  • Audrey Smedley, Race in North America: Origin and Evolution of a Worldview. Boulder: Westview Press, 1993.
  • Rodolfo Acuña, Occupied America: A History of Chicanos. NY: Harper Collins, 1988. Third Edition.
  • Karin Aguilar—San Juan, Editor. The State of Asian America: Activism and Resistance in the 1990’s. Boston: South End Press, 1994.
  • Marimba Ani, Yurugu: An African—Centered Critique of European Cultural Thought and Behavior. New Jersey: African World Press, 1994.
  • Winthrop D. Jordan, White over Black: American Attitudes toward the Negro, 1550 — 1812. New York: Norton & Company, 1965.

Essay Sample: What Is International Extradition?

August 18th, 2016 Comments off


When it comes to extradition, the term means legal process by which an individual gets transferred from one place to the another without his or her consent. To cut it, that’s how authorities do their best to make sure people won’t evade justice. When someone does something illegal in a state and then sets off to the other one, he or she can be sent back to the state, where the crime was committed to face the justice. However, in case there’s no solid provision for extradition, individuals can escape from law through changing their current location.

Now let’s take a look at what international extradition is. The term means the formal process by means of which an individual found in one country gets surrendered to the other to face the punishment or just the trial. This is regulated and conducted between two governments – the one of the USA and the other of a foreign state.

When a criminal of nation A makes an effort to escape from justice by moving to country B, country A can make a special request to the nation B. The extradition treaties are then signed and, as a result, the criminals are being transferred to the requesting country. But it is necessary to point out that this criminal transfer can be performed only by keeping in mind that all sovereign policies of the other countries should be respected. What is more, a country cannot surrender an individual to the other nation in case it goes against the constitution of the nation. In case there are no valid treaties provided between the countries, international law gives the right to suspend transfer of the fugitive to the foreign land. When demanding the fugitive surrender, the country must provide a properly written request that should be then sent by means of diplomatic channels to the appropriate justice ministry.

An interesting fact about international extradition is that a lot of countries all over the globe won’t extradite their own citizens to face the punishment or trial since that’s prohibited by their constitutions. For instance, Russian Federation argued that its constitution banned it from extraditing well-known Andrei Lugovoi, who tried to kill dissident Alexander Litvinenko in London in 2006.

As for Germany, this country also has a solid constitutional law. In case the court considers the request not proportionate, the representatives of the Constitutional Court have the right to block the extradition. The other example is about the Netherlands. Nation also tends to send a request that a person accused of crimes committed in the other country is sentenced only in the Netherlands. France in turn, provided refuge to famous Roman Polanski, wanted by the United States after fleeing before the he could be sentenced for having sex with a 13-years old girl, due to his French citizenship.

Taking into accordance the recent challenges that are now being faced by the global community, it is more desirable that each of the international crime perpetrators be brought to justice only in the courts that are efficient enough to try them. But the reality is that international law makers do not seem to adequately cooperate to ensure such trials are held.


  • Cadle v. Cauthron, 266 Ark. 419 (Ark. 1979).
  • Pajkanovic v. United States, 353 Fed. 183 (11th Cir. Fla. 2009).
  • Markham v. Pitchess, 605 F.2d 436 (9th Cir. Cal. 1979).
  • Nanda & David K. Pansius, Litigation of International Disputes in U.S. Courts § 10:21 (2d ed. 2013) (detailed discussion of the implications of the Convention Against Torture for extradition law).
  • Cryer et al, Introduction to International Criminal law and Procedure: Principles, Institutions (2007) Cambridge University Press.
  • Joseph et al, The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights: Cases, Materials, and Commentary (2005) 2nd Ed. Oxford University Press.
  • Nicholls et al: The Law of Extradition and Mutual Assistance (2007) 2nd Ed. Oxford University Press.